рефераты конспекты курсовые дипломные лекции шпоры

Реферат Курсовая Конспект

Лекції № 7, 8. План лекцій. 7. Ларина Т.В. Англичане и русские: Язык, культура, коммуникация. – М.: Языки славянских культур, 2013. – 360 с

Лекції № 7, 8. План лекцій. 7. Ларина Т.В. Англичане и русские: Язык, культура, коммуникация. – М.: Языки славянских культур, 2013. – 360 с - раздел Философия, Лекції № 7, 8. ...

Лекції № 7, 8.

Language & Communication.

План лекцій.

1. Common mistakes in English.

2. Differences between the American and the British English.

3. Vocabulary differences between the British and the American English.

4. Some rules of the communication.

5. Academic projects in English (the xerocopy).

Література.

1. http://www.teachervision.fen.com/research-papers/teaching-methods/1767.html

2. http://www.ukstudentlife.com/English/Study/Mistakes.htm

3. http://esl.about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm

4. http://www.uta.fi/FAST/US1/REF/usgbdiff.html

5. http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/british-american.htm

6. http://www.english-at-home.com/vocabulary/american-and-british-vocabulary/

7. Ларина Т.В. Англичане и русские: Язык, культура, коммуникация. – М.: Языки славянских культур, 2013. – 360 с.

8. Мортон Г. Англия и Уэльс. Прогулки по Британии. – М.: ЭКСМО, 2009. – 736 с.

9. Злобин Н.В. Америка. Живут же люди! – М.: ЭКСМО, 2012. – 416 с.

10. Тер-Минасова С.Г. Язык и межкультурная коммуникация. – М.: Изд-во МГУ, 2008. – 352 с.

11. Барский Л. Анатомия английского юмора. – М.: Книжный дом «ЛИБРОКОМ», 2012. – 256 с.

12. Виссон Л. Русские проблемы в английской речи. Слова и фразы в контексте двух культур. – М.: Р.Валент, 2003.

13. Кузьменковы Ю. и А. Английский язык для межкультурного общения. – М.: Изд-во МГУ, 2013. – 276 с.

14. Кузьменкова Ю. Презентация научных проектов на английском языке. – М.: Изд-во МГУ, 2011. – 132 с.

15. Ларина Т.В. Категория вежливости и стиль коммуникации: сопоставление английской и русской лингвокультурных традиций. – М.: Рукописные памятники Древней Руси, 2009. – 200 с.

16. Швейцер А.Д. Литературный английский язык в США и Англии. – М.: ЛКИ, 2008. – 200 с.

17. American English for everyday and academic use. – М.: Наука, 2005. – 330 с.

 

Завдання до семінарського заняття № 6.

1. What are the peculiarities characterizing the Russian style of communication? In what way is it different from that accepted in the English speaking world? What tendencies in the English society influence communicative behavior? What is the role of distancing in communication?

 

 

Common mistakes in English.

One and a half. - Wrong: "I've been in Scotland for one and a half month" (or "one month half") - Right: "I've been in… Scary. You are frightened about something. - Wrong: "I'm scary" -…      

Differences between the American and the British English.

· Pronunciation - differences in both vowel and consonants, as well as stress and intonation · Vocabulary - differences in nouns and verbs, especially phrasal verb… · Spelling - differences are generally found in certain prefix and suffix forms

Use of the Present Perfect.

In British English the present perfect is used to express an action that has occurred in the recent past that has an effect on the present moment. For example:

I've lost my key. Can you help me look for it?
In American English the following is also possible:
I lost my key. Can you help me look for it?

In British English the above would be considered incorrect. However, both forms are generally accepted in standard American English. Other differences involving the use of the present perfect in British English and simple past in American English include already, just and yet.

British English:

I've just had lunch
I've already seen that film
Have you finished your homework yet?

American English:

I just had lunch OR I've just had lunch
I've already seen that film OR I already saw that film.
Have your finished your homework yet? OR Did you finish your homework yet?

Possession.

There are two forms to express possession in English. Have or Have got

Do you have a car?
Have you got a car?
He hasn't got any friends.
He doesn't have any friends.
She has a beautiful new home.
She's got a beautiful new home.

While both forms are correct (and accepted in both British and American English), have got (have you got, he hasn't got, etc.) is generally the preferred form in British English while most speakers of American English employ the have (do you have, he doesn't have etc.)

The Verb Get.

The past participle of the verb get is gotten in American English. Example He's gotten much better at playing tennis. British English - He's got much better at playing tennis.

Vocabulary.

Mean: (American English - angry, bad humored, British English - not generous, tight fisted) Rubber: (American English - condom, British English - tool used to erase… There are many more examples (too many for me to list here). If there is a difference in usage, your dictionary will…

Prepositions.

There are also a few differences in preposition use including the following:

· American English - on the weekend
British English - at the weekend

· American English - on a team
British English - in a team

· American English - please write me soon
British English - please write to me soon

Past Simple/Past Participles.

The following verbs have two acceptable forms of the past simple/past participle in both American and British English, however, the irregular form is generally more common in British English (the first form of the two) and the regular form is more common to American English.

· Burn
Burnt OR burned

· Dream
dreamt OR dreamed

· Lean
leant OR leaned

· Learn
learnt OR learned

· Smell
smelt OR smelled

· Spell
spelt OR spelled

· Spill
spilt OR spilled

· Spoil
spoilt OR spoiled

Spelling.

Here are some general differences between British and American spellings:

Words ending in -or (American) -our (British) color, colour, humor, humour, flavor, flavour etc.
Words ending in -ize (American) -ise (British) recognize, recognise, patronize, patronise etc.

The best way to make sure that you are being consistent in your spelling is to use the spell check on your word processor (if you are using the computer of course) and choose which variety of English you would like. As you can see, there are really very few differences between standard British English and standard American English. However, the largest difference is probably that of the choice of vocabulary and pronunciation.

Vocabulary differences between the British and the American English.

If an Englishman reads "The floorwalker says to go to the notion counter," he knows at least one word he does not understand. If he reads a speech of President Roosevelt declaring "our industries have little doubt of black-ink operations in the last quarter of the year.' he is at least aware of a foreign usage, and may be trusted to go off and discover it.

But if I write "The clerk gave a biscuit to the solicitor," He will imagine something precise, if a little odd. The trouble is that, however lively his imagination, what he imagines may be precise but is bound to be wrong. For he is confronted with three nouns which mean different things in the United States and in England.

British to American.

· Alsatian (dog) = German shepherd · Articulated lorry = tractor-trailer (truck), a "semi" · Ass = donkey; U.S. ass = G.B. "arse," i.e. one's backside (in addition to normal "donkey")

American to British.

· Billboard = hoarding · Biscuit = scone; G.B. biscuit = U.S. cookie · Billy club = truncheon

British) English Translated For Americans.

· ADMIRALTY in Britain is the Navy Department in the U.S. · AGRICULTURAL SHOW is a State or County Fair. · AIRY-FAIRY means superficial in a disparaging sense and is roughly "fanciful"

British English / American English Vocabulary.

Here are some of the main differences in vocabulary between British and American English. This page is intended as a guide only. Bear in mind that there can be differences in the choice of specific terms depending on dialect and region within both the USA and the UK.

British English VS American English

American and British vocabulary.

There are differences between British and American English – but there are also regional differences in British and American dialects. If you spot something that you think is strange, or if you have an alternative for any of the words, please let us know!
In the list below, the first expression is always British English.

Houses.

Washing up liquid = Dish soap

Hoover = Vacuum cleaner

Washing powder = Laundry soap

Clothes peg = Clothes pin

Fridge = Fridge / Refrigerator

Living room / lounge = Living room / Den

Chest of drawers = Bureau

Wardrobe = Closet

Armchair = Easy chair

Larder / pantry = Pantry

Oven = Oven / stove

Cars.

Mirror = Rear view mirror

Wing mirror = Side mirror

Indicators = Blinkers

Bonnet = Hood

Boot = Trunk

Windscreen = Windshield

Put your foot down = Step on the gas
(To drive fast)

Motor / wheels = Wheels
(Informal expressions for your car)

Some rules of the communication.

The distance between the Russians / the Ukrainians, the Americans and the British in the communication.

The type of the distance the Russians / the Ukrainians the British the Americans
Intimate (the conversation between close people in a whisper) 10-18 cm. 10-45 cm. 45, 7 cm.
Personal (the conversation between close people in a public) 15-25 cm. 45-120 cm. 45-120 cm.
Casual, social (the distance between colleagues) 30 cm. – 2 m.   1-4 m. 120-360 cm.
Public (the loud communication in public) < 2,5 m. < 3,5 m. < 360 cm.

Mind your pleases and thank yous (Mind your Ps and Qs).

1. Help. 2. Help me, please. 3. Can you help me?

Invitations in Great Britain.

False invitations: Come again soon / You should come to lunch one day / Drop in / Let`s go down somewhere at the weekend / We should get together sometime.

True invitations: Would you like to come to my birthday party? / I am just wondering if you`d like to come to my birthday party / Why don`t you come up and see me sometime?

Would you like to … / Do you want to … / Are you interested in …?

That would be great / That would be lovely / That sounds great / I`d love to, but …

Giving advices.

I think … / I suppose … / I think you should … / If I were you, I would … / Why don`t you … / I think perhaps you should do it / Maybe you should do it (See Illustrations).

 

 

Illustrations.

Research Paper: How to Write a Bibliography.

General Guide to Formatting a Bibliography.

Author (last name first).Title of the book. City: Publisher, Date of publication. EXAMPLE: Dahl, Roald.The BFG. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux,… For an encyclopedia:

Online Resources

Internet:

Author of message, (Date). Subject of message.Electronic conference or bulletin board(Online). Available e-mail: LISTSERV@ e-mail address

EXAMPLE:

Ellen Block, (September 15, 1995). New Winners. Teen Booklist (Online). Helen Smith@wellington.com

World Wide Web:

URL (Uniform Resource Locator or WWW address). author (or item's name, if mentioned), date.

EXAMPLE: (Boston Globe's www address)

http://www.boston.com. Today's News, August 1, 1996.

 


 

 

Лекція № 9.

Travel Guides (Great Britain & the USA).

План лекції.

1. The USA: the travel guide.

2. Great Britain: the travel guide.

Література.

1. http://wikitravel.org

2. Крылов Д. Англия. – М.: Эксмо, 2010. – 432 с.

3. Олтмен Дж. США: путеводитель. – М.: «Издательство ФАИР», 2012. – 304 с.

4. Гапонів А.Б. Лінгвокраїнознавство. Англомовні країни. – Вінниця: Нова книга, 2005. – 464 с.

5. Павловская А.В. Как иметь дело с англичанами. – М.: Издательство МГУ, 2006. – 208 с.

6. Павловская А.В. Как иметь дело с русскими. – М.: Издательство МГУ, 2003. – 80 с.

7. Карасик В.И. Лингвокультурный типаж «английский чудак». – М.: Гнозис, 2006. – 240 с.

8. Фокс К. Англия и англичане. То, о чем умалчивают путеводители. – М.: РИПОЛ классик, 2012. – 512 с.

9. Баталов Э.Я Русская идея и американская мечта. – М.: Прогресс-Традиция, 2009. – 384 с.

 

Завдання до семінарського заняття № 7.

My own travel guide (Great Britain, the USA, Scotland, Ireland, Canada, Australia).

 

The USA: the travel guide.

    Florida Northern Florida is similar to the rest of the South, but is not so in the resorts of Orlando, retirement…     Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota,…     Texas The second biggest state in the nation is like a separate country (and in fact, once…

Cities.

§ Washington, D.C. — the national capital, filled with major museums and monuments, along with multi-cultural communities § Boston — best known for its colonial history, its passion for sports, and… § Chicago — heart of the Midwest and transportation hub of the nation, with massive skyscrapers and other…

Other destinations

These are some of the largest and most famous destinations outside of major cities.

§ Denali National Park — a remote national park featuring North America's highest peak

§ Grand Canyon — the world's longest and most visited canyon

§ Mesa Verde National Park — well-preserved Ancestral Puebloan cliff dwellings

§ Mount Rushmore — the iconic memorial of 4 former presidents carved into a cliff face

§ Niagara Falls — the massive waterfalls straddling the border with Canada

§ Great Smoky Mountains National Park — national park in the southern Appalachians

§ Walt Disney World — the most popular vacation resort destination in the world

§ Yellowstone National Park — the first national park in the U.S., and home of the Old Faithful geyser

§ Yosemite National Park — home of El Capitan and the famous Giant Sequoia trees

Arriving in the United States.

If you are not a citizen or resident of the United States, you will go through a short interview at immigration, where a Customs and Border… Once the CBP officer decides to let you in, you are fingerprinted and a… Like immigration and customs officials everywhere, CBP officials are humorless about any kind of security threat.…

At customs.

You can't bring meat or raw fruit or vegetables but you may bring cooked non-meats, such as bread. See APHIS for details. The U.S. Customs… Besides your personal effects, which will go home with you, you are allowed… The U.S. possessions of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Marianas Islands, & U.S. Virgin Islands are outside…

After customs.

Since you have had access to your checked bags while going through customs, you will always need to re-clear security if proceeding on to a… Note that the bag drop procedures above work only if you have requested the… Unlike most countries, the U.S. has no formal passport control checkpoint for those exiting the country, especially…

Fees.

Fortunately, most of the prices that you immediately see when searching for flights already include taxes and other mandatory fees applicable to all passengers. This is true whether you directly check the carrier's website or a consolidator (e.g. Travelocity). Unlike carriers in other foreign countries, those in the U.S. do not explicitly have a fuel surcharge. However, carriers charge for extra services, especially mainline/legacy ones. Here is a run down of services that may incur additional fees, as well as strategies for avoiding them if they aren't a service you need or want. Even baggage fees can be avoided with careful planning:

§ Checking in with an agent: A few airlines are charging an additional fee ($3-10) for checking in with an actual human being, and Spirit Airlines also charges you for using the airport kiosk instead of checking in online. Unless you need to check in with an agent (e.g., if you have specialized equipment that qualifies for a baggage fee waiver) you should check in online and print your boarding pass at home to save time and avoid additional charges. Some airlines will let you use your iPhone, Android, or BlackBerry as a boarding pass, either by showing an e-mail with a barcode to security and the gate agent, or through a specialized app, although many smaller and regional airports do not support mobile boarding passes yet.

§ Checked baggage: Though prices vary by airline, you're generally looking at between $25 and $35 to check a single bag, an additional $50 for a second bag, and up to $100 or more for a third bag. Bags that are oversized or overweight will easily double or triple these fees.

§ You're allowed to carry on one small suitcase or garment bag and one personal item (like a briefcase, backpack, or purse) free of charge+. If you can get everything in your carry-ons, this is the best way to avoid baggage fees. Due to ongoing security restrictions, liquids, gels, shaving creams, and similar items must be under 3.4oz (100ml) and be presented to security inside a zip-lock bag. Razor blades, electric shavers, scissors, or anything else with a blade or sharp edge can never be placed in your carry-on.

§ + Ultra low cost carrier Spirit Airlines charges $20-35 per bag for carry-ons, depending on whether you're a member of their fare club and whether you pay online or at the airport, in many cases it's actually cheaper to check these bags instead of carrying on. As of 2011, no other airline charges for carry-on bagage.

§ Members of frequent flier rewards programs who have "elite" status may typically check 1 or more bags free of charge, or may receive other perks such as additional weight allowances. Some airlines have a branded credit card that offers similar perks.

§ Pre-paying baggage charges online may give you a slight discount on some carriers.

§ Discount carriers JetBlue and Southwest allow all passengers one and two checked bags free of charge, respectively.

§ Due to these fees, another popular alternative is to ship luggage via UPS, FedEx or the U.S. Postal Service, although this does take some extra planning and preparation.

§ Curbside check in: $2-$10 on top of any bag or check-in fees, plus a tip is usually expected.

§ Extra legroom seats: the cost depends on the length of the trip but expect to pay anything from 5 to 15% of the standard economy class fare. This is bookable at the time you purchase your ticket. Those in higher tiers can get this at no extra cost.

§ Food: Most airlines offer some small snacks (e.g., peanuts, potato chips, cookies) free of charge on all flights. On flights longer than 1.5–2 hours, a buy-on-board option may be offered where you can purchase prepackaged sandwiches, snacks, and occasionally hot food at inflated prices. Flights from the east coast to Alaska, Hawaii and U.S. Pacific territories (which can be over 8 hours each way) generally still feature traditional meal service.

§ All airlines allow you to bring your own food and non-alcoholic beverages on board. All except the smallest airports have an array of fast food and quick serve options in the terminal — but you can't bring liquids through the security checkpoint (and some airports do not allow food either), so don't purchase anything until after you've cleared security. While airside food outlets will inevitably be more expensive than what's available before security or off-airport, it still costs much less and likely has a larger selection than what's available on board. Some cities, such as Philadelphia, regulate airport food vendors and limit how much air-side restaurants can markup.

§ Drinks: Beverage service is one thing the airline industry hasn't done away with, and even the shortest regional jet flights still feature complimentary coffee, tea, water, juice and soda - an exception is ultra low fare carrier Spirit, who charges for anything other than water. If you'd like something stronger, you can pay $5–7 to pick among a decent selection of beer, two or three varieties of wine, and a couple of basic cocktails that can be mixed easily and quickly (e.g. gin and tonic).

§ In-flight entertainment: Most U.S. carriers offer entertainment of one kind or another on longer domestic routes. Delta, JetBlue, Virgin America, and some of United's fleet offer free satellite TV in every seat, as well as movies on demand for purchase for $3-8. American has overhead screens showing movies and sitcom episodes on most longer routes, while U.S. Airways and Southwest do not have in flight entertainment of any kind.

§ In-flight WiFi: Delta, JetBlue and Southwest offer in-flight WiFi on nearly all their domestic fleets - American, U.S. Airways and United offer it on select flights. Prices range from $5-20, depending on the airline, length of flight, and device (tablets and smartphones get a discount as they use less data) but the Internet connection is good for almost the entire flight (at least until told by crew to switch-off your devices). Daily and monthly passes are also available for less than $50/month. Most airlines do not offer power ports in economy, so be sure you're charged up or have extra batteries for your device. Mobile phones are usually permitted to be operated in-flight as long as they have been set to flight mode (which effectively shuts-off the mobile phone signal from your provider) before being airborne.

§ Pillows and blankets are disappearing rapidly. Some airlines don't have them at all; some will charge you for them (but you get to keep after you pay); and one or two offer them for free (but you have to ask for them). Red-eye and long (>5 hour) flights are more likely to have free pillows and blankets. As always, check with your airline, and bring your own from home if you think you'll need them.

§ Lounge passes: Each mainline carrier operates a network of lounges, such as Alaska Airline's "Board Rooms" and Delta's "Sky Clubs" - offering a quieter space to relax or work in, business amenities such as free WiFi, fax services and conference rooms, as well as complimentary finger foods, soft drinks, beer and wine. Frequent flyers buy annual memberships to these lounges, but any passenger can buy a day pass during check in or at the club itself, usually around $50, although sometimes less if you buy online. Only you can decide if the fee is worthwhile, but if you're in the upper elite tiers of an airline alliance (One World Sapphire or Emerald, Star Alliance Gold or SkyTeam Elite Plus) you may have access to these lounges for free with your frequent flyer card. For members in the highest tiers, this privilege may be extended to a travelling companion. Additionally international Business and First Class passengers can also access these lounges for free.

§ First class upgrades: Delta, United, and U.S. Airways sell upgrades on a first come-first served basis at check-in if first class has open seats. This is one to actually consider, especially if you're checking bags - "day of" upgrades can sometimes be as low as $50 each way, less than the cost of two bag fees. You'd may be paying less to check your bags and additionally getting priority security screening, boarding and baggage handling, along with a larger seat and free refreshments on board.

Most mainline carriers feature "cashless cabins" meaning any on-board purchases must be paid with either Visa or Mastercard (Delta also accepts American Express). Regional subsidiaries generally do still accept cash on-board, although flight attendants may not be able break large bills - hence the traditional request "exact change is appreciated." If you paid in advance for first class, checked baggage, meals, and alcoholic beverages are all included with the price of your ticket, as well as priority access to check-in agents, lounge access and boarding.

Ironically, America's discount airlines, such as JetBlue, Southwest, and Virgin America sometimes have more amenities than the legacy carriers, and for many people may be a much better experience. Jet Blue offers over 45 channels of satellite television, non-alcoholic beverages and real snacks for free on every flight; Virgin America also has satellite TV, in addition to on demand dining (even in economy). On Jet Blue your first checked bag is free ($35 for a second bag), and Southwest is the only U.S. carrier to still offer two checked bags per passenger free of charge. Virgin America charges for checked bags, but their fees are considerably lower than the legacies.

Driving laws.

Most American drivers tend to drive calmly and safely in the sprawling residential suburban neighborhoods where the majority of Americans live.… Driving law is primarily a matter of state law and is enforced by state and… AAA publishes a AAA/CAA Digest of Motor Laws, which is now available online for free at:http://drivinglaws.aaa.com/.…

Historical attractions.

Actually, a number of American cities have world-renowned skylines, perhaps none moreso than the concrete canyons of Manhattan, part of New York… Some human constructions transcend skyline, though, and become iconic symbols…

Museums and galleries.

The highest concentrations of these museums are found in the largest cities, of course, but none compare to Washington, D.C., home to the… New York City also has an outstanding array of world-class museums, including… You could spend weeks exploring the cultural institutions just in D.C. and the Big Apple, but here's a small…

Money.

The official U.S. currency is the United States dollar ($), divided into 100 cents (¢). Conversion rates vary daily and are available online. The dollar is colloquially known as the buck so 5 bucks means $5. Foreign currencies are almost never accepted, although some major hotel chains may accept travelers cheques in other currencies. Canadian currency is sometimes accepted at larger stores within 100 miles of the border, but discounted for the exchange rate. (This is less of an issue nowadays with the stronger Canadian dollar.) Watch for stores that really want Canadian shoppers and will accept at par. Often, a few Canadian coins (especially pennies) won't be noticed, but less so the further south you go. Now that the Mexican peso has stabilized, it is somewhat accepted at some locations at border towns (El Paso, Laredo, etc), but you're better off exchanging your pesos in Mexico, and using U.S. dollars instead, to ensure the best exchange rate.

Common American bills are for $1, $5, $10, $20, and $50 with $2 and $100 bills considerably less common. All bills are the same size. All $1, $2, and $100 bills, and older $5, $10, $20, and $50 bills are greenish and printed with black and green ink. Newer versions of the $5, $10, $20, and $50 bills incorporate different gradations of color in the paper and additional colors of ink. As designs are updated every 5-10 years, you will currently find up to three different designs of some bills in circulation. Almost all vending machines accept $1 bills and a few accept $5 bills; acceptance of larger bills ($50 and $100) by small restaurants and stores is less common. No U.S. banknotes have been devalued in the last 80 years. Coins also haven't been devalued, and coins from as early as the 1940s are still found in circulation.

The standard coins are the penny (1¢, copper color), the chunky nickel (5¢, silver color), the tiny dime (10¢, silver color) and the quarter (25¢, silver color). None of these coins display the numeral of their value, so it is important to recognize the names of each. The size doesn't necessarily correspond to their relative value: the dime is the smallest coin, followed by the penny, nickel, and quarter. Half dollar (50¢, silver) and dollar ($1, silver or gold) coins exist but are uncommon. Coin-operated machines usually only accept nickels, dimes, and quarters.

Places for shopping

Outlet centers. The U.S. pioneered the factory outlet store, and in turn, the outlet center, a shopping mall consisting primarily of such stores.… Major retailers. American retailers tend to have some of the longest business… Garage sales. On weekends, it is not uncommon to find families selling no longer needed household items in their…

Eat

The variety of restaurants throughout the U.S. is remarkable. In a major city such as New York, it may be possible to find a restaurant from nearly every country in the world. One thing that a traveler from Europe or Latin America will notice is that many restaurants do not serve alcohol, or may only serve beer and wine. Some restaurants, especially in larger cities, implement a BYOB (Bring Your Own Booze) policy, in other words, you are invited to bring your own alcoholic beverages. Another is the sheer number and variety of fast food and chain restaurants. Most open early in the morning and stay open late at night; a few are open 24 hours a day. A third remarkable fact is the size of the portions generally served by U.S. restaurants. Although the trend has moderated in recent years, portions have grown surprisingly large over the past two or three decades.

Smoking.

Smoking policy is set at the state and local levels, so it varies widely from place to place. A majority of states and a number of cities ban smoking in restaurants and bars by law, and many other restaurants and bars do the same by their own policy. Some states (like New York and California) have banned any smoking indoors, while some still allow designated smoking areas. Check local information, and ask before lighting up; if a sign says "No Smoking," it means it. Breaking the ban may get you ejected, fined, or even arrested - and lots of dirty looks.

In recent decades, smoking has acquired something of a social stigma—even where smoking is permitted, be sure to ask your dining companions if they mind.

Types of restaurants.

Take-out food is very common in larger cities, for food that may take a little longer to prepare than a fast-food place can accommodate. Place an… Fast-Casual is a fairly recent new genre of restaurants that grew in… Chain sit-down restaurants are a step up in quality and price from fast food, although those with discerning palates…

Types of Service.

Continental Breakfast is a term primarily used by hotels and motels to describe a cold breakfast offering of cereal, breads, muffins, fruit, etc.… Lunch can be a good way to get food from a restaurant whose dinners are out… Dinner, the main meal. Depending on culture, region, and personal preference, is usually enjoyed between 5 and 9pm.…

Types of food.

Barbecue, BBQ, or barbeque is a delicious American specialty. At its best, it's beef brisket, ribs, or pork shoulder slowly wood smoked for hours.… With a rich tradition of immigration, America has a wide variety of ethnic… Chinese food is widely available and adjusted to American tastes. Authentic Chinese food can be found in restaurants…

Etiquette.

Table manners, while varying greatly, are typically European influenced. Slurping or making other noises while eating are considered rude, as is… Many fast food items (sandwiches, burgers, pizza, tacos, etc) are designed to… If you're dining at a restaurant and can't finish what's on your plate (which often happens to visitors unaccustomed…

Drink.

Drinking customs in America are as varied as the backgrounds of its many people. In some rural areas, alcohol is mostly served in restaurants rather than dedicated drinking establishments, but in urban settings you will find numerous bars and nightclubs where food is either nonexistent or rudimentary. In very large cities, of course, drinking places run the gamut from tough local "shot and a beer" bars to upscale "martini bars".

American tradition splits alcoholic drinks into hard liquor and others. Americans drink a wide array of hard liquors, partially divided by region, but for non-distilled spirits almost exclusively drink beer and wine. Other fermented fruit and grain beverages are known, and sold, but not consumed in great quantities; most fruit drinks are soft (meaning 'non-alcoholic', not 'low alcohol volume'). 'Cider' without further qualifiers is a spiced apple juice, and 'hard cider' is a relatively little-consumed alcoholic beverage in spite of the U.S. having been one of its most enthusiastic consumers a mere two centuries ago. Be prepared to specify that you mean a liquor or cocktail in shops not specifically dedicated to alcohol.

Beer is in many ways the 'default' alcoholic beverage in the U.S., and is priced cheaply and bought without high expectations for quality. The various idioms for alcohol consumption frequently and sometimes presumptively refer to beer. While most American beer drinkers prefer light lagers – until the 1990s this was the only kind commonly sold – a wide variety of beers are now available all over the U.S. It is not too unusual to find a bar serving 100 or more different kinds of beer, both bottled and "draft" (served fresh in a cup), though most will have perhaps a dozen or three, with a half dozen "on tap" (available on "draft"). Microbreweries – some of which have grown to be moderately large and/or purchased by one of the major breweries – make every kind of beer in much smaller quantities with traditional methods. Most microbrews are distributed regionally; bartenders will know the local brands. Nowadays all but the most basic taverns usually have one or more local beers on tap, and these are generally more full of character than the big national brands, which have a reputation for being generic. Some brew pubs make their own beer in-house, and generally only serve the house brand. These beers are also typically considered superior to the big national brands.

Wine in the U.S. is also a contrast between low-quality commercial fare versus extremely high-quality product. Unlike in Europe, American wines are labeled primarily by the grape (merlot, cabernet sauvignon, Riesling, etc.). The simple categories 'red', 'white', and 'rosé' or 'pink' are also used, but disdained as sole qualifiers by oenophiles. All but the cheapest wines are usually also labeled by region, which can be a state ("California"), an area of a state ("Central Coast"), a county or other small region ("Willamette Valley"), or a specific vineyard ("Dry Creek Vineyard"). (As a general rule, the narrower the region, the higher quality the wine is likely to be.)

Cheap cask wines are usually sold in a box supporting a plastic bag; bottled wines are almost universally priced as semi-luxury items, with the exception of 'fortified wines', which are the stereotypical American answer for low-price-per-milliliter-alcohol 'rotgut'.

All 50 U.S. states now support winemaking, with varying levels of success and respect. California wines are some of the best in the world, and are available on most wine lists in the country. The most prestigious American wine region is California's Napa Valley, although the state also has a number of other wine-producing areas, which may provide better value for your money because they are less famous. Wines from Oregon's Willamette Valley and the state of Washington have been improving greatly in recent years, and can be bargains since they are not yet as well known as California wines. Michigan, Colorado's Wine Country, and New York State's Finger Lakes region have recently been producing German-style whites which have won international competitions. In recent years, the Llano Estacado region of Texas has become regionally renowned for its wines. The Northern Virginia area, specifically Fauquier, Loudoun, and Prince William counties are also becoming well known for both their flavor, and organized wine tasting tours, supplemented by the scenery seen on the drives between locations.

Sparkling wines are available by the bottle in up-scale restaurants, but are rarely served by the glass as they often are in western Europe. The best California sparkling wines have come out ahead of some famous brand French champagnes in recent expert blind tastings. They are comparatively difficult to find in 'supermarkets' and some non-alcoholic sparkling grape juices are marketed under that name.

The wines served in most bars in America are unremarkable, but wine bars are becoming more common in urban areas. Only the most expensive restaurants have extensive wine lists, and even in more modest restaurants wine tends to be expensive, even if the wine is mediocre. Many Americans, especially in the more affluent and cosmopolitan areas of the country, consider themselves knowledgeable about wine, and if you come from a wine producing country, your country's wines may be a good topic of conversation.

Hard alcohol is usually drunk with mixers, but also served "on the rocks" (with ice) or "straight up" (un-mixed, with no ice) on request. Their increasing popularity has caused a long term trend toward drinking light-colored and more "mixable" liquors, especially vodka, and away from the more traditional darker liquors such as whiskey and bourbon that many older drinkers favor. However this is not an exclusive trend and many Americans still enjoy whiskey and bourbon.

It was formerly wholly inappropriate to drink hard liquor before 5PM (the end of the conventional workday), even on weekends. A relic of this custom is "happy hour", a period lasting anywhere from 30 minutes to three hours, usually between 5PM and 8PM, during which a significant discount is offered on selected drinks. Happy hour and closing time are the only presumptive customs in American bars, although 'ladies night', during which women receive a discount or some other financial incentive, is increasingly common.

Although laws regulating alcohol sales, consumption, and possession vary somewhat by state and county, the drinking age is 21 throughout the U.S. except in most of the outlying territories (where it is 18). Enforcement of this varies, but if you're under 30 you should definitely be prepared to show photo ID when buying alcohol in a store or entering a bar (which often refuse admittance to "minors" under 21). In some states, people who are under 21 are not even allowed to be present in bars or liquor stores. A foreign passport or other credible ID will probably be accepted, but many waiters have never seen one, and it may not even be legally valid for buying alcohol in some places. As a driver's license is the most ubiquitous form of ID in the U.S. and have a magnetic strip for verification purposes, some supermarkets have begun requiring them to purchase alcohol. In such cases, it is the cash register not the cashier which prevents such purchases. It's worth noting that most American ID's have the date of birth laid out as month/day/year, while frequently other countries ID's use year/month/day or day/month/year which may cause further confusion. Using false identification to misrepresent your age is a criminal offense in all 50 states, and while most alcohol vendors will simply refuse to sell or take a blatantly fake ID away, a few also call the police which may result in prosecution.

Selling alcohol is typically prohibited after a certain hour, usually 2 AM. In some states, most stores can only sell beer and wine; hard liquor is sold at dedicated liquor stores. Several "dry counties" – mostly in southern states – ban some or all types of alcohol in public establishments; private clubs (with nominal membership fees) are often set up to get around this. Sunday sales are restricted in some areas.

Most towns ban drinking in public (other than in bars and restaurants of course), with varying degrees of enforcement. Even in towns which allow public drinking, a visible bottle (rather than one in a small bag, which is so commonly used for it as to be synonymous with public drinking) is either illegal or justifies police attention. All communities have some sort of ban on "drunk and disorderly" behavior, some quite stringent, and as a rule intoxication is an aggravating rather than exculpating factor in all but the most and least severe offenses. Drunk driving comes under fairly harsh scrutiny, with a blood-alcohol level of 0.08% considered "Under the Influence" and many states considering 0.05% "Impaired" - in Washington D.C. it's illegal to drive with any amount of alcohol in your system. If you're under 21, however, most states define a DUI from 0.00-0.02%. Drunk driving checkpoints are fairly common during major "party" events, and although privacy advocates have carved out exceptions, if a police officer asks a driver to submit to a blood-alcohol test or perform a test of sobriety, you generally may not refuse (and in certain states such as New Yorkit is a crime in its self). DUI ("driving under the influence"), OUI ("operating under the influence") and DWI ("driving while intoxicated") are typically punished quite harshly, and as a foreign national it will typically mean the end of your time in the United States - even permanent residents have had their Green Cards revoked and were subsequently deported for DUI. In many jurisdictions catching and enforcing DUIs is the main job of patrolling police; it is watched for zealously and treated severely. It is also usually against the law to have an open container of alcohol anywhere in the car other than in the trunk. Some states have "open bottle" laws which can levy huge fines for an open container in a vehicle, sometimes several hundred dollars per container.

Nightlife.

Until 1977, the only U.S. state with legalized gambling was Nevada. The state has allowed games of chance since the 1930s, creating such resort…

Sleep.

By far the most common form of lodging in rural United States and along many Interstates is the motel. Providing inexpensive rooms to automotive travelers, most motels are clean and reasonable with a limited array of amenities: telephone, TV, bed, bathroom. Motel is a national chain with reasonable rates ($30-$70, depending on the city). Super 8 Motels provides reasonable accommodations throughout the country as well. Reservations are typically unnecessary, which is convenient since you don't have to arbitrarily interrupt a long road trip; you can simply drive until you're tired then find a room. However, some are used by adults looking to book a night for sex or illicit activities and many are located in undesirable areas.

Business hotels are increasingly available across the country. Generally they are more expensive than motels, but not as expensive as full-scale hotels, with prices around $70 to $170. While the hotels may appear to be the size of a motel, they may offer amenities typically associated with larger hotels. Examples include Marriott International's Courtyard by Marriott and Fairfield Inn; Hilton's Hampton Inn and Hilton Garden Inn; Holiday Inn's Holiday Inn Express; Starwood's Aloft and Four Points by Sheraton, and Hyatt Place.

Another option are extended-stay hotels directed at business travelers or families on long-term stays (that are often relocating due to corporate decisions). These hotels often feature full kitchens in most rooms, afternoon social events (generally by a pool), and serve continental breakfast. Such "suite" hotels are roughly equivalent to the serviced apartments seen in other countries, though the term "serviced apartments" is not generally used in American English. Examples include Marriott’s ExecuStay, Residence Inn, TownePlace Suites and SpringHill Suites; Extended StayAmerica; Homestead Studio Suites; Homewood Suites by Hilton; and Summerfield Suites by Hyatt.

Hotels are available in most cities and usually offer more services and amenities than motels. Rooms usually run about $80-$300 per night, but very large, glamorous, and expensive hotels can be found in most major cities, offering luxury suites larger than some houses. Check-in and check-out times are almost always fall in the range of 11AM-noon and 2PM-4PM. Examples of major hotel chains include Marriott, Renaissance by Marriott, Hilton, Hyatt, DoubleTree by Hilton, Sheraton, Radisson, and Wyndham. Examples of upscale hotels include St. Regis, Fairmont, Waldorf Astoria, Crowne Plaza, InterContinental,

Note that many U.S. cities now have "edge cities" in their suburbs which feature high-quality upscale hotels aimed at affluent business travelers. These hotels often feature all the amenities of their downtown/CBD cousins (and more), but at less exorbitant prices.

In many rural areas, especially on the coasts and in New England, bed and breakfast (B&B) lodging can be found. Usually in converted houses or buildings with less than a dozen units, B&Bs feature a more home-like lodging experience, with complimentary breakfast served (of varying quality and complexity). Bed and breakfasts range from about $50 to $200 per night, with some places being much steeper. They can be a nice break from the impersonality of chain hotels and motels. Unlike Europe, most American bed and breakfasts are unmarked; one must make a reservation beforehand and receive directions there.

The two best-known hotel guides covering the U.S. are the AAA (formerly American Automobile Association; typically pronounced "Triple-A") TourBooks, available to members and affiliated auto clubs worldwide at local AAA offices; and the Mobil Travel Guide, available at bookstores. There are several websites booking hotels online; be aware that many of these sites add a small commission to the room rate, so it may be cheaper to book directly through the hotel. On the other hand, some hotels charge more for "drop-in" business than reserved rooms or rooms acquired through agents and brokers, so it's worth checking both.

There are also youth hostels across the U.S. Most are affiliated with the American Youth Hostel organization (a Hostelling International member). Quality of hostels varies widely, but at $8-$24 per night, the prices are unbeatable. Despite the name, AYH membership is open to people of any age. Non-AYH hostels are also available, particularly in larger cities. Be aware that hostels are clustered in more touristy locations, do not assume that all mid sized towns will have a hostel.

Camping can also be a very affordable lodging option, especially with good weather. The downside of camping is that most campgrounds are outside urban regions, so it's not much of an option for trips to big cities. There is a huge network of National Parks, with most states and many counties having their own park systems, too. Most state and national campgrounds are of excellent quality, with beautiful natural environments. Expect to pay $7-$20 per car on entry. Kampgrounds of America (KOA) has a chain of commercial campground franchises across the country, of significantly less charm than their public-sector equivalents, but with hookups for recreational vehicles and amenities such as laundromats. Countless independently owned private campgrounds vary in character.

Some unusual lodging options are available in specific areas or by prior arrangement. For example, you might enjoy staying on a houseboat in Lake Tahoe or the Erie Canal. Or stay in a treehouse in Oregon. More conventional lodging can be found at college or university dormitories, a few of which rent out rooms to travelers during the summertime. Finally, in many tourist areas, as well as big cities, one can rent a furnished house by the day.

Crime.

While there are locations throughout the United States with higher crime rates, most crime is concentrated in inner city neighborhoods. Few visitors to the U.S. experience any sort of crime. Much crime is gang- or drug-related or the result of family / personal disputes, and it usually occurs in areas that are of little interest to visitors. You can all but ensure that you won't experience crime by taking common-sense precautions and staying alert to your surroundings. Locations frequented by tourists and visitors (National Mall in Washington DC, and Manhattan in NYC) often have a police presence and are quite safe for all but petty crimes.

Most American urban areas have homeless people. In some areas aggressive panhandling is a concern. If you feel you are being harassed, say NO firmly and walk away.

Security has increased along the United States–Mexico border due to increased illegal immigration and drug crime. Only cross the country's borders at official crossings.

Police

American police are generally polite, professional, and honest. When in uniform, they are also more formal, cautious, and cold than police in, say, Latin America—especially in large cities. If stopped by police, you should stay calm, be polite and cooperative, avoid making sudden movements, and state what you are doing if you need to reach for your purse or wallet to present your identification. Turn on the inside car lights and keep your hands on the wheel to make it clear that you are not a threat. Do not exit the vehicle unless told to do so. If you follow the officer's instructions, you will probably not be arrested (unless you have actually committed a crime or resemble someone who recently committed one in the immediate vicinity).

Do not offer bribes to a police officer in any way or under any circumstances. U.S. police culture categorically rejects bribes. The mere suggestion would very likely result in your immediate arrest. Furthermore, do not attempt to pay a fine to the officer who issued it, as it will almost certainly be interpreted as an attempted bribe. If you need to pay a fine, the officer can direct you to the appropriate police station, courthouse, or government office. Most minor traffic infractions can be paid by mail.

Emergency Services

With mobile phones it is more difficult; in some states, you may be connected to the regional office for the state police or highway patrol, which… If you are staying in one area, it may be helpful to have the phone numbers… Note also that if you have a GSM mobile phone (the standard technology in most of the world, especially in Europe),…

Natural disasters.

The U.S. is a huge country with very varied geography, and parts of it are occasionally affected by natural disasters:hurricanes in June through November in the South including Florida, blizzards (sometimes called "Noreasters") in New England and the areas near the Great Lakes and the Rocky Mountains, tornadoes mostly in the Great Plainsregion, earthquakes in California and Alaska, floods in areas of the Midwestern United States and wildfires in the late summer and early fall in Texas and on the West Coast, particularly California. See the regions in question for more details.

Because tornadoes are so common between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains, this area has earned itself the colloquial name Tornado Alley. The San Andreas Fault is a tectonic plate boundary running through California, an area prone to earthquakes.

Disease.

Two diseases that, while rare, are worth becoming educated about are rabies and Lyme disease. Rabies is more prevalent in eastern regions of the… Other diseases that are endemic within the United States, but are of far less… It should be noted that all of the above listed diseases are extraordinarily rare and the medical system of the…

Health care

Most metropolitan areas will have a mix of public and private hospitals, and in turn, U.S. private hospitals can be either nonprofit or… In a life-threatening emergency, call 911 to summon an ambulance to take you… Walk-in clinics are another place for travelers to find routine medical care, letting patients see a doctor or …

Restrooms/toilets.

Basically all public buildings are required to have handicapped accessible restrooms. Increasingly, restrooms offer baby changing stations in both… For little children who need to be monitored or assisted, it's generally…

Dress.

Today, dress in the U.S. tends to be fairly casual. For everyday clothes, jeans and T-shirts are always acceptable, as are shorts when the weather is suitable. Sneakers (athletic shoes) are common; flip-flops and sandals are also popular in warm weather.

At the workplace, business casual (slacks, understated collared shirts without a tie, and non-athletic shoes) is now the default at many companies; more traditional industries (e.g. finance, legal, and insurance) still require suits and ties, while others (e.g. computer software) are even more casual, allowing jeans and even shorts.

When dressing up for nice restaurants or upscale entertainment, a pair of nice slacks, a collared shirt, and dress shoes will work almost everywhere. Ties for men are rarely necessary, but jackets are occasionally required for very upscale restaurants in big cities (such restaurants almost always will have courtesy jackets on offer if you forget).

At the beach or pool, men prefer loose bathing trunks or boardshorts, and women wear bikinis or one-piece swimsuits. Nude bathing is not generally acceptable and is usually illegal except at certain private beaches or resorts; even women going topless is not usually accepted by most people, and is also illegal in some states.

Generally, Americans accept religious attire such as hijab, yarmulke, and burqa without comment. However, do be aware that in places of heightened security such as banks, municipal buildings, and so on, wearing clothing which covers the face may be regarded as suspicious behavior and is generally unadvisable.

Respect

§ It is polite to shake hands when meeting someone or being introduced. It is often omitted in less formal situations. § Unless it is really crowded, leave about an arm's length ofpersonal space… § As a result of the country's extensive history of racial discrimination, coupled with the country's more recent…

Great Britain: the travel guide.

United Kingdom

    Wales located within the largely mountainous western portion of Great Britain.

Ireland.

  Northern Ireland Located in the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, consisting of six of the nine counties of the ancient Irish province of Ulster.

Crown Dependencies.

  Channel Islands (Guernsey,Jersey, Alderney, Sark) technically not a part of the UK, the Channel Islands consist of four small islands off the coast of France

 

  Isle of Man technically not a part of the UK, the Isle of Man is a small island between Britain and Ireland

Cities.

§ London - the capital city of the United Kingdom and one of the most important cities in the world § Belfast - capital of Northern Ireland and becoming a popular tourist … § Birmingham - The UK's second largest city, features great shopping, and is home of the famous Balti and a strong…

Common Travel Area.

If you require a visa for either Ireland or the UK, however, you must possess a visafrom each country that requires you to have one if you intend… In addition, no passport control checks are in place from the Channel Islands… The United Kingdom is physically linked to two other countries. The Channel Tunnel connects the UK to France and…

Customs and goods.

Owing to the abolition in 1993 of customs duty on goods for personal use when travelling across EU borders, it has become popular among the… Most ports of entry that receive traffic from non-EU origins use the European…

Talk.

"Two countries divided by a common language"

Speakers of US English will find quite a few terms which differ in UK English:

§ Biscuits - cookies

§ Cash machine/cash point - ATM

§ Cinema - movie theatre

§ Chips - fries, which may be "french fries" or thick-cut traditional British chips

§ Crisps - potato chips

§ Fag - cigarette (only used colloquially)

§ Lift - elevator in building; the offer of a ride in car

§ Lorry - truck

§ Motorway - expressway or freeway

§ Nappy - diaper

§ Queue - line

§ Return ticket - round-trip ticket

§ Take-away (in ordering food) - to-go

§ Toilet or Loo - washroom/restroom/bathroom/lavatory (a bathroom is where you have a bath/shower, not where you relieve yourself in British English)

§ Torch - flashlight

English is spoken throughout the United Kingdom, although there are parts of major cities where immigration has led to a variety of languages being spoken as well. English spoken in the UK has several dialects, some of which may contain words which are unfamiliar to other English speakers. It is exceedingly common for a resident of the south and one of Yorkshire not to understand each other at first go, do not be afraid to ask someone to repeat themselves. Your best bet would be to ask someone under the age of 30 as generally elderly people have thick unintelligible accents. A trained ear can also distinguish the English spoken by someone from Northern Ireland as opposed to someone from the Republic of Ireland, or even pinpoint their origin to a particular town within a county, such as Leeds or Whitby. English in Scotland and Northern Ireland can be spoken quite fast. The different dialects can be extremely different in both pronounciation and vocabulary. If you encounter difficulty please remember that this is still English and offence might be taken if you ask someone to speak English, instead they should be asked to speak slower.

Welsh is also widely spoken in Wales, particularly in North and West Wales. The number of Welsh speakers has risen over the last few years partley due to promtion in schools, but this bilingual population is still only around 30% of the total population of Wales. Government bodies whose area of responsibility covers Wales use bilingual documentation (English and Welsh) - for example, see the website of the Swansea-based DVLA. Road signs in Wales are bilingual. Even the non-Welsh-speaking majority in Wales know how to pronounce Welsh place names. Once you hear how to pronounce a name, have a go and try not to offend!

Scottish Gaelic can be heard in the Scottish Highlands and Islands, but there are only 60,000 native speakers.

The ancient Cornish language of Cornwall, in the far south west, was revived during the twentieth century, but it is not passed down from parent to child as Welsh and Gaelic still are. Be aware, however, that Cornish place names remain and can be rather challenging to pronounce for non-locals!

Irish is spoken in some areas of Northern Ireland, particularly in the border regions.

Many in Scotland claim Scots to be an entirely different language to English, it is what people commonly speak in much of Scotland and to some extent Northern Ireland. In northern England similar dialects can also be heard, such as Geordie. It can be difficult to understand, so feel free to ask someone to repeat themselves or speak more slowly. Speakers are likely to use standard English with outsiders.

All speakers of these minority languages are fluent to near-fluent in standard English but react well if you show an interest in their native tongue and culture. Inter-migration in the United Kingdom means you are likely to encounter people from all over the UK and beyond no matter where you visit. It is rare to find a place where all adults have the same accent or dialect.

There's an old joke that the people of the US and the UK are "divided by a common language", and travellers from English-speaking countries outside the UK may have difficulty catching specific words where regional accents are strong, but still there should not be any major difficulties in communicating. The British are good at understanding English spoken in a foreign accent, and visitors who speak English as a second language need not fear making mistakes. You may just get a slightly blank look for a few seconds after the end of a sentence while they 'decode' it internally. Most British people will not criticise or correct your language, although some are very keen to promote British usages over American ones when talking to non-native-speakers.

A few examples of words that overseas visitors may not be familiar with:

§ Wee - small (Scotland, Northern Ireland, some English people), can also mean to relieve yourself (England)

§ Loch - lake (Scotland)

§ Lough - lake (Northern Ireland)

§ Aye - yes (some parts of Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and North England)

§ Poke - ice cream served in a wafer cone (Northern Ireland); a paper bag, especially one containing chips or sweets (Scotland)

§ Downing Street - used to refer to the Government (similar to White House referring to the President of the United States)

§ Cymru (pronounced 'Cum-ree') - Wales (Wales)

§ Cockney rhyming slang is not a language but a collection of terms, some local and temporary, others so long-lasting that they are used by many people who don't realise that they are rhyming slang. Example of the latter: "raspberry" for the derisive noise called "Bronx cheer" in the US - derived from "raspberry tart", rhyming with "fart".

British people have historically been very tolerant of swearing, when used in context. It is considered far less shocking to say taboo words like "Cunt" or "twat" compared to in America, and can even be a term of endearment depending on the situation. Tourists should get used to hearing the word "mate" (and "boss or "bruv" to a lesser extent in London) a lot which is used in informal interaction (frequently male only) between strangers and friends alike, and is something similar to calling someone "buddy" or "pal". The use of affectionate terms between the sexes such as "darling", "love" or "sweetheart" is common between strangers and is not meant in a sexist or patronising manner. Furthermore, British people are prone to apologising for even the smallest things, much to the amusement of some and can be considered perhaps rude to not do so. An example such as bumping into you will warrant a "sorry" and is really more like "pardon" or "excuse me".

British Sign Language, or BSL, is the UK's primary sign language. When interpreters are present for public events, they will use BSL. In Northern Ireland, both BSL and Irish Sign Language (ISL) see use, and a Northern Ireland Sign Language, or NISL, is emerging from contact between the two. Users of Auslan or New Zealand Sign Language may understand BSL, as those languages were derived from BSL and share much vocabulary, as well as the same two-handed manual alphabet. On the other hand, users of French Sign language and related languages—notably ISL and American Sign Language—will not be able to understand BSL, as they differ markedly in syntax and vocabulary, and also use a one-handed manual alphabet.

Cities.

Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland was initially centred on the Old Town, the castle and Holyrood Palace, but the New Town is a Georgian… Oxford and Cambridge – The two ancient university towns allow you to wander… The United Kingdom has an array of National Parks and designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty that serve to…

Sport.

United Kingdom can be called the home of sport as it was the birthplace of four of the world’s major sports, Association Football, Rugby Football,Tennis and Cricket. There are shrines to these sports all over the country. Wembley, Old Trafford, Anfield, Hampden Park for Football, Twickenham and Murrayfield for Rugby, Lords for Cricket and the All England club at Wimbledon for Tennis.

Landmarks.

§ Stonehenge is an ancient stone circle located near the cathedral city of Salisbury in Wiltshire. § The Georgian architecture and Roman baths in Bath. § York Minster (Cathedral) in the historic city of York.

Cigarettes and tobacco.

The minimum age to purchase tobacco is 18 however, smoking is legal at 16. Customers who appear younger than 18 (and, in some places, 21 or 25)… In some places there is a black market in considerably cheaper, imported… Smoking is illegal all enclosed public places with the exception of some hotel rooms (enquire when booking). For the…

Money.

The currency throughout the UK is the Pound (£) (more properly called the Pound Sterling, but this is not used in everyday speech), divided into 100 pence (p, pronounced 'pee').

Coins appear in 1p (small copper), 2p (large copper), 5p (very small silver), 10p (large silver), 20p (small silver with angled edges), 50p (large silver with angled edges), £1 (small, thick gold) and £2 (large, thick with silver centre and gold edge) denominations, while Bank of England notes (bills) come in £5 (green/light blue), £10 (orange/brown), £20 (blue (newer design) purple (older design)) and £50 (red), and depict the Queen on one side and famous historical figures on the other. The size increases according to value. It's often best to avoid getting £50 notes. £50 notes are often refused by smaller establishments - they are unpopular because of the risk of forgery, and because of the amount of change one needs to give on receiving one. Banks are also unlikely to change them to smaller notes for you, though a post office or bookmaker might.

However, Scottish and Northern Irish banks issue their own notes in the above denominations, with their own designs. If in doubt, check what you are given for the words "Pounds Sterling". £100 notes and some old £1 notes are also in circulation in Scotland. Bank of England notes circulate freely in the whole of the United Kingdom, and in Scotland and Northern Ireland it is quite common to receive change in a mixture of English and/or Scottish or Northern Irish notes. Welsh banks do not issue their own notes.

Some smaller English or Welsh vendors might refuse to accept notes issued by Scottish or Northern Irish banks mainly due to unfamiliarity. They are under no obligation to do so, so use them at a larger retailer, or change them for Bank of England notes at a bank. There should never be a charge for this - though foreign-exchange dealers at airports or ferry terminals might well try to charge you.

Coins are uniform throughout the United Kingdom. Non-English speaking visitors should be aware that the new coin designs (introduced from 2008) no longer show the value in numbers, only words.

You may also hear the slang term quid for pounds. It is both singular and plural; "three quid" means "three pounds". It is likely that people will use the slang "p" when they mean either a penny or pence. Note the singular is penny and the plural pence. Some people still use traditional terms such as a penny, tuppence and thruppence (1p, 2p and 3p). The words "Fiver" and "Tenner" are common slang for £5 and £10, respectively.

In general, shopkeepers and other businesses in the UK are not obliged to accept any particular money or other method of payment. Any offer to purchase can simply be refused; for example if you try to pay with notes or coins they don't recognise. If in doubt, ask someone when you enter the shop. If settling a debt, for example, paying a restaurant or hotel bill, usually any reasonable method of payment will be accepted unless it's been made clear to you in advance how you must pay. Travellers cheques in Sterling may accepted in place of cash but it is best to ask first.

ATMs, which are often known in the UK as Cashpoints, cash machines or informally as 'holes in the wall', are very widely available and usually dispense £10, £20 and sometimes £5 notes. Traveller's cheques can be exchanged at most banks. Be aware: some non-bank ATMs (easily identified, sometimes kiosk-style units, as opposed to fixed units in walls, and often at petrol/gas stations and convenience stores) charge a fixed fee for withdrawing money, and your home bank may as well. On average the cost is about £1.75 per withdrawal, but the machine will always inform you of this and allow you to cancel the transaction.

If a bank card is issued by a foreign bank, some ATMs will ask whether they should perform the conversion to the local currency, instead of debiting the bank account in GBP. This is almost always a worse deal than going with the conversion rate provided by the issuing bank, resulting in surcharges of sometimes over 5% on the withdrawal. It is more prudent to choose the "Without conversion" withdrawal option, whenever this choice is presented.

Visa, Mastercard, Maestro and American Express are accepted by most shops and restaurants, although American Express is sometimes not accepted by smaller independent establishments, and it is worth asking if unsure, especially if there are long queues. Internet purchases from a UK-based merchant with a credit card however usually incurs a 2-2.5% surcharge (this does not apply to a debit card). Since February 14, 2006, Chip and PIN has become nearly compulsory, with few companies still accepting signatures when paying by credit or debit cards. Customers from countries without chips in their credit cards are supposed to be able to sign instead of providing a PIN; however, it is wise to carry enough cash in case the retailer does not comply.

Although most small shops will take cards, there is often a minimum amount you have to spend (usually around £5). Anything under the minimum and they may refuse to accept the card, or charge a fee to process the payment.

Some stores in London accept Euros. This however is usually at an unfavourable exchange rate and should not at all be relied upon.

Shopping.

VAT (Value Added Tax - a mandatory tax on almost all goods and services in the UK) is 20% with reduced rates of 5% and 0% applying to specific… Electronic items such as computers and digital cameras can be cheaper here…

Eat.

Despite jokes and stereotypes, British food is actually very good and internationally oriented British cuisine has improved greatly over the past few decades, and the British remain extremely proud of their native dishes. Restaurants and supermarkets in the middle and upper range have consistently high standards, and the choice of international dishes is among the best in Europe. However, British eating culture is still in the middle of a transition phase. Unlike their continental neighbours, many Britons still eat to live rather than living to eat, and as a result, food quality is variable at the budget end of the market.

The United Kingdom can be an expensive place to eat out compared to, say, the more southern European countries, but relatively cheap in comparison with countries such as Switzerland and Norway.

Many restaurants in city centres tend to be a little more expensive than ones in the suburbs, and pubs do tend to be slightly more expensive in the countryside, but generally, a three-course meal without drinks will cost the traveller anywhere between £10 and £25. Chicken tikka masala with rice is sometimes claimed as the UK's most popular dish, though roast beef is a more traditional national dish.

If all else fails decent picnic foods such as sandwiches, cakes, crisps, fresh fruit, cheeses and drinks are readily available at supermarkets. Street markets are a good place to pick up fresh fruit and local cheeses at bargain prices. Bakeries (eg Greggs) and supermarkets ( eg Tesco, Sainsburys, Waitrose, Morrisons and Asda) usually sell a good selection of pre-packed sandwiches, pasties and cakes along with a range of soft drinks, juices and mineral waters. In addition, most chemists and newsagents will have a basic supply of pre-packaged sandwiches and bottled drinks. However, it is worth looking out for independent sandwich bars and bakers, as the quality of the food and value for money that they provide is often far superior to the pre-packaged food stocked by national chains, which is often bland and tasteless.

Many large shops, especially department stores, will have a coffee shop or restaurant. British tolerance for poor quality coffee has lowered significantly in recent years, and it is not hard to find good quality coffee these days.

Smoking is now banned in all restaurants, cafés, bars and pubs - there are no exceptions. However some establishments have provided 'smoking areas' and smoking is allowed in the gardens/terraces outside pubs and restaurants unless otherwise stated.

The British breakfast generally consists of either cereal and toast with preserves or a fried breakfast of egg, bacon, sausage, tomatoes, mushrooms and fried bread. The latter is known as a "full English/Scottish/Welsh breakfast", depending on where you are, or simply a "fry-up". In Northern Ireland it may be referred to as an "Ulster Fry". The Scottish variant may include haggis, and black or white pudding is sometimes included especially in the North.

Larger hotels may also offer croissants, pastries, porridge or kippers for breakfast. Some very large hotels will also provide an international selection including cold meat, cheese, boiled eggs and a variety of different kinds of bread.

Fish and chips.

The best ones are specialists, serving perhaps a few alternatives such as a selection of pies or sausages. They are usually located near where… A "sit down chippy" is a chip shop with a separate dining room.…

Take-aways.

Food in pubs.

Almost all pubs (see below) serve food, although not all will do so during the whole of their opening hours. Prices of all these types vary…

Restaurants.

The usual fast-food restaurants (McDonalds, Burger King, Pizza Hut, KFC, Subway and local chain Wimpy) are widespread in larger towns and cities…

Curry.

One of the most popular types of restaurant in the UK is the Indian restaurant. They can be found in every city and most towns large and small. There are now more and more upmarket Indian restaurants in the larger urban centres. Indian restaurants serve cuisine commonly known to their customers by the generic term "curry". Common Indian restaurant dishes include Chicken Tikka Masala, Prawn Biryani and the incredibly spicy Vindaloo. A popular version of curry is known as balti, possibly named after the metal bowl the food is cooked and served in. Balti cuisine, and a number of other commonly served dishes such as the ubiquitous chicken tikka masala, originated in the UK though it is clearly based on food from the Indian subcontinent. Birmingham in the Midlands is considered the balti capital of the UK as this dish was conceived there. Curry Mile in Manchester is well worth a visit if you are in the city.

Motorway service areas.

Motorway service areas are notoriously expensive places to eat, though the vast majority are open 24 hours by law. Most contain fast-food outlets and all have (free) toilets. Some services may be limited overnight such as the range of hot and cold food, although most will keep a selection available. Service areas are often best avoided as it is often possible to find cheaper and much better places to eat within a mile or two of a motorway junction. They have a poor reputation for hygiene and service; subsequently places like Little Chef have taken such a hit that many have closed. Try 5 minutes away [114], a website listing facilities no more than 5 minutes' drive from motorway junctions.

Vegetarian/vegan.

Bear in mind that even if you call yourself vegetarian some people will assume you eat fish, so if you don't, then tell them so. Nowadays, it is… If you are a vegan, be prepared to explain precisely what you do and don't… In general, the best places for vegetarian and vegan food are specialist veggie pubs and restaurants and Indian,…

Children.

Licensees have discretion as to whether or not to allow children into their premises. Most pubs that serve food will accept children, and it is… Children are permitted in most drinks-only pubs, especially those with…

Regional specialities.

§ Cheese - Although the British are not as famous for, or as proud of, their cheeses as their neighbours in France, a multitude of cheeses is… § Cornish Pasty - beef and vegetables baked in a folded pastry case. … § Deep Fried Mars Bar - Originally from Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, but now available in other parts of Scotlandand…

Drink.

The legal age to buy and consume alcohol is 18, but many teenagers younger than 18 have seemingly little problem in purchasing alcohol in smaller pubs and from off licences. Nevertheless, if you're over 18 but lucky enough to look younger, expect to be asked to prove your age when buying alcohol (also, in certain places if you look under 21 or 25, you have to prove you're over 18, known as "Challenge 21(25)"), especially in popular city spots. Some premises will require proof of age for all drinks after a certain time of night due to restrictions on the age of people who can be on the premises. The most trustworthy form of ID is a passport or driving licence which shows both your photograph and date of birth. ID cards are likely to be accepted (providing there is a photograph) and proof of age cards are available which must be applied for by post and take several weeks to issue. Any other form of ID willl not be accepted. In private residences the minimum age to drink alcohol is 5 years old, although it is likely that if a 5 or 6 year old etc. were getting drunk, the matter would be brought before the courts as child neglect.

Getting drunk is acceptable and often it is the objective of a party, though the police often take a dim view on those causing alcohol-related trouble. This applies to all levels of the British society - it may be worth remembering that the former Prime Minister, Tony Blair, had to collect his son Euan from a police station after he had been found drunk celebrating the completion of his GCSE exams taken at the age of 16. Nevertheless, Britons have a great sense of humour and everything is forgotten after a hangover, at least until the next time. Drinking is an important part of the British culture and, even though it is frequently complained about, it is as popular as ever.

Urinating in public is illegal (unless pregnant), and classified as indecent exposure, technically a sexual offence and quite difficult to explain when applying for a visa. You should try and use the facilities where you are drinking.

Pub.

The pub or public house is the most popular place to get a drink in the UK. Even small villages will often have a pub, serving spirits, wines, beers, cider, and 'alcopops', accompanied by crisps, nuts and pork scratchings. Many serve snacks or meals. The greater volume of drinks served are various kinds of beer, mainly lagers, bitters, and porter / stout (ie Guinness). People not looking to drink real ale are free to choose a pub just on the basis of location, and character, because most national "smooth" bitters or TV-advertised lagers are available in any non-real-ale pub; however, even non-real-ale drinkers often find that they prefer the types of pubs with a range of real ales, because they tend to be more "traditional", with a more individual character and less oriented to juke boxes, games machines, fruit machines and large crowds.

Across the whole of the United Kingdom there is now a blanket ban on smoking inside pubs and restaurants, though many pubs have areas outside, often known as "beer gardens", where smoking is (usually, but not always) permissible. However if you are lucky (or unlucky) enough to be able to stay after the formal closing hours this is called a "lock-in" and smoking may be ok if the pub landlord allows it. This will often occur only in the later hours after 11PM and these lock-ins can last any amount of time. As they are classed as a private party, they happen in only a few pubs, and often only pubs with more regular customers, although this is not always the case. Once at a lock-in, you cannot leave and come back in again.

British real ales, championed by the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA), are amongst the best in the world - though people used to colder, blander, fizzier beers may find that the taste needs to be acquired. People looking for real ale will need to select the right pubs, because although a wide range of pubs serve one or two real ales, only a "real ale pub" will have a wide selection.

British ale has a limited shelf life compared to most foreign beers, and as some pubs have only a "token" cask with low turnover, it's often well past its prime and has a strange vinegary taste: often, unfortunately, people's first and understandably only experience with "real ale". If you do receive an 'off' pint, ask for a replacement at the bar, which will usually be forthcoming.

The phrase "free house" was usually the main indicator for people looking for a good choice of beer, because this indicated that the pub was not owned by a particular brewery and served whatever beer its landlord thought would appeal to their customers. However, this is no longer a significant factor, because most national pub chains are now owned by large conglomerates who deal centrally with brewers and serve the same mass-market brands in all their pubs: these conglomerates (not being breweries) can still call their pubs "free houses".

If you want to be certain of the quality of the real ale in a pub, look out for a "Cask Marque" plaque outside the pub. This is a stringent quality standard, and you can be sure that any pub displaying this plaque will serve good quality ale. Pubs serving a wide variety of real ales will usually be willing to pour small quantities for you to try before you decide to buy, so feel free to ask if you can taste the beer first.

Cider is available in most pubs, and is usually clear and sparkling. In the West Country, especially Somerset, Devon and Cornwall, a still, cloudy cider known as "scrumpy" is often available. Proper scrumpy will come from a wooden barrel, rather than the metal kegs used to serve the more common variation.

Scrumpy is often exceedingly strong, but is deceptively easy to drink. Thus it is easy to inadvertently consume large quantities of scrumpy, which can quickly rob the unwary of the power of speech and interfere with co-ordination, balance and fine motor skills. It should be approached with extreme caution.

Scrumpy can also be bought very cheaply direct from cider farms, so if you are travelling in the West Country, look out for signs advertising cider or scrumpy for sale. The person selling you the scrumpy may be difficult to understand, because of their regional accent and due to the effects of long-term scrumpy consumption. But don't worry - most British people can't understand them either.

British people usually follow a kind of unwritten code of conduct when in pubs, though types of venue can vary dramatically, ranging from a 'local' pub, usually a quiet place consisting of one or two rooms, to a chain pub such as J.D. Wetherspoons which are very large rooms capable of holding hundreds of people.

§ Don't tap money on the bar surface to attract the barman's attention.

§ Tipping is not a tradition in most pubs and you should take all of your change. Regular customers who have a relationship with the staff will offer to buy the landlord, or bar worker, a drink. They may say something like this: "A pint of Best, landlord, and one for yourself." The landlord will often keep the money rather than have too much to drink. However, you are not obliged to do this yourself.

§ Especially in a 'local' pub, keep your voice down and avoid drawing attention to yourself.

§ It might be best to avoid heated debates about controversial subjects in pubs and bars; if others get involved these can escalate.

§ If you require extra chairs, you may want to take one from another table. If someone is already seated (even if it is only one person seated at a six-person table) you must ask if you can take the chair.

§ Waiting patiently at a bar is imperative. Pushing in line will not be tolerated and could lead to confrontation. If someone cuts in line before you, feel free to complain - you should get support from other locals around you. Bear in mind that pubs are amongst the few places in Britain which don't actually have formal queues -- you just crowd around the bar, and when everyone who was there before you has been served you can order.

§ In the male toilets, especially in big pubs or clubs, don't try to strike up conversation or make prolonged eye contact. UK pub toilets are very much "get in and get out" places - some drunk people can take a casual remark the wrong way.

Pubs with a good choice of real ales may exhibit almost any pattern of ownership:

§ By a real-ale brewery (in which case the pub will serve all of the beers made by them, and perhaps only one "guest beer").

§ By a national or local pub chain who believe it is possible to serve a range of real ales at reasonable prices (their chain buying power can force down a brewer's margins) in a pub that non-real-ale-fans will be willing to patronise.

§ By an independent landlord committed to real ale (usually the ones with the most idiosyncratic beers, and the hard-core "real ale type" customers).

Many pubs are very old and have traditional names, such as the "Red Lion" or "King's Arms"; before widespread literacy, pubs would be identified by most customers solely by their signs. Recently there has been a trend, strongly resisted in some quarters, towards chain-pubs such as the Hogshead, Slug and Lettuce and those owned by the JD Wetherspoon company. Another recent trend is the gastro pub, a smartened-up traditional pub with a selection of high-quality food (nearly at restaurant prices).

Beer and cider in pubs is served in pint and half-pint measures, or in bottles. A pint is slightly more than half a litre (568ml to be precise). Simply ordering a beer on tap will be interpreted as a request for a pint, e.g. 'a lager, please'. Alternatively 'half a lager, please' will get you a half-pint. If you ask for a "half-pint of lager" in a noisy pub, you will almost certainly get a pint, because no-one asks for a "half-pint" and the bar person will have thought you said "I'll have a pint of lager, please". Prices vary widely based on the city, the pub and the beer, but generally pints will be in the range £3 to £4.

Spirits and shorts are normally 25 ml although some pubs use a standard 35ml measure, in all cases it will be clearly indicated on the optic, in England, Scotland and Wales. In Northern Ireland, the standard measure is a 35ml measure. A dram in Scotland was traditionally a quarter of a gill measure now 25ml.

Pubs often serve food during the day. Drinks are ordered and paid for at the bar.

When applying for a licence, pubs can specify any opening times they wish; this can be challenged by neighbours, etc. Closing times are typically the 'last order' time - the pub can sell drinks before this and customers have to drink up and leave within 20 minutes of the licensing hours.

Until the recent change in licensing laws, closing times were 11PM and 10:30PM on a Sunday, and this is still quite common. The most common closing times at the weekends in towns are between midnight and 1AM, and some larger pubs may apply for a licence until 2AM and clubs 3AM or 4AM. It is not unheard of that some bars have licences until the early hours (6AM) although this is rare as many who are out until this time are likely to go to nightclubs and then home. Theoretically, a pub can ask for a 24-hour licence, though few have done so.

Wine bars.

In cities, in additional to traditional pubs, there are more modern wine-bars and café-bars (often known simply asbars), though the variable weather means that there is not as much of a 'street scene' as in other European cities. However, depending on the weather, there are more and more pavement cafés in the UK than in the past. Parts of London, Manchester and other up-and-coming cities are good examples of this change of scene.

Prices in bars tend to be higher than in pubs, with less focus on beer, and more on wine, spirits and cocktails. Customers are often younger than those of traditional pubs, though there is much crossover and some bars are more "pubby" than others.

Clubbing.

Clubs are often cheaper during the week (Mon-Thu) as many of these nights are designed to cater for students; however, you usually have to pay an…

Non alcoholic.

The UK offers a wide variety of hotels rated on a scale of stars, from 5-star luxury (and beyond!) to 1-star basic. There are also a vast number… Budget travellers can opt to stay in a youth/backpackers' hostel Another option is to stay at short term rental apartments. There are numerous such companies around the country.

Police.

Respect.

The British can be extremely indirect when requesting things from people they do not know. It is common for Britons to "ask around"… Similarly, saying 'What?' when not understanding something can be considered… Allow some personal space between you and others in queues and elsewhere. You will usually find this in such places…

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  • Русский язык и культура речи Языковые нормы не придуманы филологами, они отражают определённый этап в развитии литературного языка всего народа.Нормы языка нельзя ввести или… Нормы помогают литературному языку сохранять свою целостность и… Они защищают литературный язык от потока диалектной речи, социальных и профессиональных жаргонов, просторечия.Это…
  • Средства невербальной коммуникации в изучении иностранного языка (на примере немецкого языка) Он во многом определяет как реакцию на окружающих, так и их отношение к нам. Стоит только сознательно отнестись к этим безмолвным сигналам, которые… Самые современные представления позволяют думать, что способность читать чужие… Проще говоря, самые разные внешние признаки, такие как выражение лица или направление взгляда, помогают нам догадаться…
  • Контрольная работа по дисциплине "русский язык и культура речи" Гагарин 2008 г Вы знаете д_рогие мои что красота во всех ее про_влениях имеет свое об_яние свое подчиняющ_е себе вл_яние на человека. Вот мы смотр_м на ночное звез_ное небо стоим у бер_га бе_крайнего моря… Это ощ_щение красоты в нас возн_кает через посредство нашего т_лесного зрения.
  • Русский язык и культура речи Франц. convertir - «конвертировать» < лат. convertere - «переворачивать, превращать, изменять», от con «с- (со-), вместе» и vertere - «менять,… Импичмент. импичмент сущ. (сер. XX в.) Англ. impeachment - «импичмент», от… Апелляция сущ. (нач. XVIII в.) Польск. apelacja - «апелляция» < лат. appellatio - «обращение», от appellare -…