Реферат Курсовая Конспект
Упражнения для языка - раздел Лингвистика, Методическое пособие по практической фонетике 1) Высовывание Языка "лопата". Обнажив Зубы, Придать Языку П...
1) Высовывание языка "лопата". Обнажив зубы, придать языку плоскую форму, так, чтобы края касались верхних зубов. Затем слегка протянуть язык между зубами. Зубы верхней челюсти слегка скоблят по стенкам языка. Продуть воздух через щель между зубами и языком. Высовывая язык, не загибать его вверх.
2) Высовывание заостренного языка: "жало". Обнажить зубы, высовывая заостренный язык, не прикасаясь к нему зубами. Кончик языка направлен вперед и вверх. Избегать непроизвольных изгибаний.
3) Прощупывание линий поперечного разреза полости рта кончиком языка. Приложить кончик языка к краю верхних зубов. Прощупать щель между верхними резцами. Перейти на альвеолярную десну. Продвигая кончик языка назад, пройти через альвеолярную десну и прощупать твердое нёбо. Коснуться нёбной занавески.
4) Чередование дорсального и апикального уклада. Приложить кончик языка к нижним зубам у внутренней десны. Выгнуть аркой среднюю часть языка. Затем поднять и переместить кончик языка на самую выпуклую часть альвеол, переводя язык в апикальное положение. При повторении движений кончик языка загибается вверх и вниз.
VOWELS. THE CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH VOWEL PHONEMES. MONOPHTHONGS. PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION.
Main Theoretical Concepts:
Vowel is a sound in the articulation of which the air passes through the mouth freely (there is no obstruction to the stream of air).
The English vowel phonemes are divided according to the stability of articulation into two large groups: monophthongs and diphthongs.
A monophthong is a sound in the pronunciation of which the organs of speech do not perceptibly change their position throughout the duration of the vowel.
E.g. [i] [e] [x] [P] [u] [A] [q] 12 vowel
[i:] [L] [H] [R] [q:] phonemes
The English monophthongs may be classified according to the following principles:
I. According to the position of the tongue (the position of the bulk of the tongue or the horizontal movement of the tongue) vowels are divided into five groups:
a) Front vowels are those produced with the bulk of the tongue in the front part of the mouth with the front of the tongue raised in the direction of the hard palate.
E.g. [i:] [e] [æ], the nucleus of [eq], Russian vowels [и] [э]
b) Front – retracted vowels are those produced with the bulk of the tongue in the front part of the mouth, but somewhat retracted; the front part of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate.
E.g. [I], the nuclei of the diphthongs [QI] [Qu]
c) Central vowels are those in the pronunciation of which the central part of the tongue is raised towards the juncture between the hard and soft palate
E.g. [A] [q] [E:], the nucleus of [qu], Russian sounds: [ы] [а]
d) Back vowels are those produced with the bulk of the tongue in the back part of the mouth while the back of the tongue is raised in the direction of the soft palate, forming an empty space in the front part of the mouth.
E.g. [P] [L] [H] , the nucleus of [OI], Russian [o] [у]
e) Back – advanced vowels are those which are produced with the bulk of the tongue in the back part of the mouth, but somewhat advanced, the back part of the tongue is raised in the direction of the front part of the soft palate
E.g. [R] [H]
II. According to the height of the raised part of the tongue (or the vertical movement of the tongue) vowels are devided into 3 groups:
a) Close (high) vowels are produced when one of the parts of the tongue comes close to the roof of the mouth and the air passage is narrowed.
E.g. [I] [J] [H] [u], Russian [u] [ы] [у]
There are variations: narrow and broad. High - narrow: [J] [H]; high – broad: [I] [u]
b) Open (low) vowels are produced when the raised part of the tongue is very low in the mouth, the air passage is very wide. Low – narrow: [A], the nucleus of [OI]; low – broad: [æ] [R] [P], the nuclei of [QI] [Qu]
c) Mid – open (mid) vowels are produced when the raised part of the tongue is half way between its high and low positions. Mid – narrow: [e] [q:], the nucleus of [qu]; mid – broad: [L] [q], the nucleus of [eq]
1) Characterise the sounds according to the main principles of articulation
[R, P, i:, A, qu, Oi, x]
2) Guess which sound is meant:
- a back advanced monophthong, low – broad
- a front monophthong, high – narrow
- a central monophthong, low – narrow
- I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice – cream
- These three sheep have eaten three green leaves each
4) Ship or Sheep U-1
5) Listening I U-1
1) Define a vowel.
2) How are the vowel sounds classified?
3) What are the main principles of classification of vowels?
1) Vasiliev V. A. English Phonetics, 1980, p. 19 – 25, 46 – 61
2) O'Connor. Better English Pronunciation, p. 79 – 84
Monophthongs. Principles of classification
Main Theoretical Concepts:
III. According to the lip position monophthongs can be rounded and unrounded. Rounded vowels are produced when the lips are more or less rounded
E.g. [u:] [u] [L][ P], the nuclei of [qu] [OI], Russian [у] [о]
Unrounded vowels are produced when the lips are spread or neutral
E.g. [I] [ J] [ e] [ x] [ R] [ A] [ q:] [ q], the nuclei of [qu][ OI], Russian [э] [и] [а] [ы]
IV. According to their length vowels are long or short
The long English vowels are [J] [R] [L] [ H] [q:].
The short ones are [I][ e][ x] [P] [u] [A] [q].
V. According to the degree of tenseness vowels may be tense or lax.
Tense vowels are produced when the organs of speech are tense. All the long vowels are tense. Lax vowels (the short ones) are produced with lesser tenseness of the speech organs.
VI. According to the character of their end vowels may be checked or unchecked. Checked vowels are pronounced without any lessening of the force of the utterance towards the end (in a closed syllable)
E.g. short vowels under stress, long vowels, diphthongs + voiceless consonants. Unchecked vowels are pronounced with lessening of the force of the utterance towards their end.
E.g. long vowels, diphthongs under stress + voiced consonants, unstressed vowels.
- Is little lipstick permissible for women in Egyptian villages?
- Miss, miss, little miss Miss, if she misses, she misses like this.
2) Ship or Sheep U-2
3) Listening I U-2
1) What vowel sounds are called rounded, voiceless, checked, long?
1) Vasiliev V.A. English Phonetics. M., 1980, pp. 19-25
2) O'Connor Better English Pronunciation, pp. 79-84
Main Theoretical Concepts:
A diphthong is a vowel sound in the pronunciation of which the organs of speech start in the position of one vowel and glide gradually in the direction of another vowel, full formation of which is not accomplished.
It is a complex sound consisting of two vowel elements pronounced so as to form a single syllable.
The first element of the English diphthong is called the nucleus It is strong, clear, distinct.
The second element is called the glide. It is rather weak.
There are eight diphthongs in English. They are devided according to the glide. There are:
1) three diphthongs with a glide towards [I]: [eI] [OI] [QI]
2) two diphthongs with a glide towards [u]: [Qu] [qu]
3) three diphthongs with the glide towards [q]: [Iq] [eq] [uq]
The vowels in the articulation of which the organs of speech change their position but very slightly are called diphthongized vowels or diphthongoids: [J] [H]
One man went to mow, went to mow a meadow.
One man and his dog went to mow a meadow.
Two men went to mow, went to mow a meadow.
Two men, one man and his dog went to mow a meadow (etc.).
2) Ship or Sheep U-3
3) Listening I U-3
4) Pronunciation Tasks U-2
1) What is a diphthong?
2) Name the elements of a diphthong
3) The classification of diphthongs
1) Vasiliev V.A. English Phonetics, 1980, p. 19-20
2) O'Connor Better English Pronunciation, p. 84-89
THE SYSTEM OF ENGLISH VOWEL PHONEMES. TEST.
Main Theoretical Concepts:
System of English Vowel Phonemes in Comparison With the Russian One.
|According to height of the raised part of the tongue||Front vowels||Front-retracted vowels||Central vowels||Back-advanced vowels||Back vowels|
|Close (high) vowels||Narrow variation||и||J||ы||H у|
|Mid – open (mid) vowels||Narrow variation||e||q: qE|
|Open (low) vowels||Narrow variation||A||O4|
Notes: [F1] – the nucleus of [eq],
[a] - the nucleus of [QI], [Qu]
[q] – the nucleus of [qu]
[O] – the nucleus of [OI]
1) Characterise the vowels [q:, A, I, qu, eI, Iq, e, u, H]
As a matter of fact the handsome lad has broken his ankle in the accident.
3) Ship or Sheep U-4
4) Listening I U-4
5) Pronunciation tasks U-2, p.8
1) Enumerate the principles of the classification of the vowels. Exemplify your statements.
2) What is a vowel? Define a monophthong, a diphthong.
3) Characterize the sounds: [OI, R, QI, L, Iq]
CONSONANTS. THE CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH CONSONANT PHONEMES
Main Theoretical Concepts:
A consonant is a sound produced with an obstruction to the air stream. The organs of speech are tense at the place of obstruction. In the articulation of voiceless consonants the air stream is strong, while in voiced consonants it is weaker.
Consonants are usually classified according to the following principles:
1) according to the type of obstruction and the manner of the production of noise;
2) according to the active speech organ and the place of obstruction.
3) according to the work of the vocal cords and the force of articulation.
4) according to the position of the soft palate.
Occlusive consonants are produced with a complete obstruction formed by the articulating organs, the air – passage in the mouth cavity is blocked.
Plosive consonants: in their production the speech organs form a complete obstruction which is then quickly released with plosion.
In the production of occlusive sonorants the speech organs form a complete obstruction in mouth cavity which is not released, the soft palate is lowered and the air escapes through the nasal cavity.
In the production of affricates the speech organs form a complete obstruction which is then released so slowly that a considerable friction occurs at the point of articulation.
Constrictive consonants are produced with an incomplete obstruction, that is by a narrowing of the air – passage.
In the production of noise constrictives (or fricatives) the speech organs form an incomplete obstruction.
In the production of constrictive sonorants the air – passage is fairly wide so that the air passing through the mouth doesn't produce audible friction and tone prevails over noise.
1) Give the definition of the English consonants [d, n, l, s, D, S, C, r, j, w, g, N]
2) Write down the dictation. Russian variant – English variant – transcription.
3) Write the transcription symbols of the sounds which are heard when the organs of speech are prepared to pronounce:
a) the English consonants [d, b, g], but with the soft palate lowered
b) the English consonants [p, k, t], but with the vocal cords drawn near together and vibrating
4) Draw the position of the organs of speech in pronouncing the consonants [p, t, k, m, n, N]
5) Draw the position of the tongue in pronouncing the English consonants [T, D, s, z, S, Z, w, r, j, l, C]
6) Guess the consonant by the definition.
7) Answer the theoretical questions.
Never trouble trouble till trouble troubles you.
It only doubles trouble and troubles others too.
9) Ship or Sheep U - 5 (Intonation: Making a List, Intonation of Enumeration)
10) Listening 1 U-5
11) Pronunciation Tasks U-4, p.10
The last part of the article is rather hard to grasp.
13) Ship or Sheep U – 6 (Intonation of exclamation.)
14) Listening I U-6
15) Pronunciation Tasks U-6, p.13
Rod often wants a cup of hot water from a pot.
17) Ship or Sheep U – 7 (Intonation of a Suggestion and a Command.)
18) Listening 1 U-7, 8
1) Vasiliev V.A. English Phonetics. M., 1980
2) Leontieva S.F. English Phonetics
3) Kenworthy, J. Teaching English Pronunciation, Longman, 1987
4) Wells, J.C. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, Longman, 1990
Main Theoretical Concepts:
Assimilation is a modification in the articulation of a consonant under the influence of an adjacent consonant. It is the chief factor due to which the principal variants of phonemes are modified into subsidiary ones.
The consonant the articulation of which is modified is called the assimilated sound.
The consonant, which influences the articulation of the neighbouring consonant, is called the assimilating sound.
Assimilation may affect all the features of the articulation of a consonant or only some of them.
Types of assimilation.
a) Assimilation affecting the point of articulation, i.e. the principal (alveolar) variants of the phonemes [t, d, n, l, s, z,] are replaced by their subsidiary dental variants.
b) assimilation, affecting both the point of articulation and the active organ of speech.
e.g. congress ['kPNgres] – the forelingual alveolar [n] is replaced by the back - lingual velar [N] if the prefix “con-“ bears either a primary or a secondary stress.
bacon ['beIkqn] → ['beIkN]
I can go [QI kqn 'gqu] → [QI kN 'gqu] – a vowel between [n] and [k] in an unstressed syllable is omitted in rapid speech so [n] → [N]
2) assimilation affecting the manner of the production of noise
e.g. give me ['gIm mI]
The constrictive noise fricative [v] before the occlusive nasal sonorant [m] at the word boundary in rapid speech is modified. So [v] → [m] - constrictive → occlusive sonorant.
let me ['lem mI] – [t] → [m] – occlusive noise plosive → occlusive sonorant
The manner of noise production is affected by assimilation in cases of:
a) lateral explosion: when a plosive is followed by [l]
e.g. pleasure, candle, cattle
The closure for the plosive is not realized till the off-glide for [l]: the sides of the tongue are lowered and the air escapes along them with lateral explosion.
b) loss of plosion or incomplete plosion in the clusters:
1. of 2 similar plosives [pp, pb, tt, td, kk, kg]
2. of 2 plosives with different points of articulation [kt, kC, dg, tb]
There is only one explosion for the 2 plosives. The closure of the organs of speech for the second plosive is made before the release of the first one.
e.g. act, fact, good girl
c) nasal plosion – a plosive followed by the syllabic [n, m] has no release, the air escapes through the nasal cavity
e.g. button, submarine
3) assimilation affecting the work of the vocal cords
A voiceless consonant may be replaced by a voiced one under the influence of the adjacent voiced consonant or vice versa
e.g. goose ['gHs], goose berry ['guzbqrI] – voiceless [s] → voiced [z]
used ['jHzd], used to ['jHst tu] – voiced [z] → voiceless [s]
The English sonorants [m, n, l, r, j, w] are partly devoiced when they are preceded by the voiceless consonants [s, p, t, k]
e.g. small, please, try, slow, quick, twenty
4) assimilation affecting the lip position
The labialized subsidiary variants of the phonemes [k, g, t, s,] etc. are used under the influence of the following bilabial sonorant [w]
e.g. quick ['kwIk], twenty ['twentI], language ['lxNgwIG]
5) assimilation affecting the position of the soft palate
Nasal consonants influence oral ones
e.g. let me [lem mI'] – [t] → [m], oral → nasal
kindness [kQInnIs] – [d] → [n], oral → nasal
1) Transcribe the text, underline the modified sounds, analyze and explain the changes.
The cook took a good look at the cookery book and shook some sugar on the gooseberry pudding.
3)Ship or Sheep U-10
4) Listening U-10
5) Pronunciation Tasks pp. 3, 10
1) What is assimilation?
2) What types of assimilation do you know?
3) What features of the articulation of a consonant does the assimilation affect? Give the examples.
1) Vasiliev V. A. English Phonetics. M.,1980, p. 70-86
2) Leontieva S.F. A Theoretical Course of English Phonetics. M., 1989, p. 145-150
Main Theoretical Concepts:
Assimilation which occurs in everyday speech in the present – day pronunciation is called living.
Assimilation which took place at an earlier stage in the history of the language is called historical.
e.g. question ['kwestjqn] → ['kwesCqn]
occasion [q'kxzjqn] → [q'keIZqn]
As far as the direction of assimilation is concerned it can be:
1) progressive (A → B), when the 1st of the 2 sounds affected by the assimilation makes the second sound similar to itself
e.g. what's this ['wPts 'DIs] – [z] is replaced by [s] under the influence of [t]
2) regressive (A←B), when the preceding consonant is influenced by the one following it.
e.g. news ['njHz], newspaper ['njHspeIpq] – [z] → [s] under the influence of [p]
3) reciprocal, double (A↔B), when two adjacent consonants influence each other
e.g. twenty ['twentI] – [t] becomes labialized under the influence of [w]. [w] is assimilated to the voiceless plosive [t] and is partly devoiced.
Assimilation may be of three degrees:
1) complete: the articulation of the assimilated consonant fully coincides with that of the assimilating one
e.g. horse – shoe ['hLSSH] (horse ['hLs] + shoe ['SH]) – [s] changes into [S]
does she ['dASSJ] – [z] → [S] in rapid speech
2) partial: the assimilated consonant retains its main phonemic features and becomes only partly similar in some feature of its articulation to the assimilating sound.
e.g. [t, d, n, l, s, z] are assimilated to the dental consonants [T, D]
tenth ['tenT], width ['wIdT], their point of articulation is changed, but the main phonemic features remain. The same concerns the words twice and please: voiced variants of the phonemes [w, l] are replaced by their partly devoiced variants.
3) intermediate: the assimilated consonant changes into a different sound but does not coincide with the assimilating consonant.
e.g. goose ['gHs], gooseberry ['guzbqrI] – [s] [z] under the influence of [b]
Assimilation is called contextual if the articulation of a word is changed in combination with other words
e.g. news ['njHz], newspaper ['njHspeIpq], horse-shoe, etc.
The modification can be conditioned: a) by the complementary distribution of the phonemes; b) by the contextual variations in which phonemes may occur at the junction of words; c) by the style of speech: official or rapid colloquial.
1) Transcribe the text, explain the modifications.
Lucy thew her new blue balloon to Sue.
3) Ship or Sheep U-11
4) Listening U-11
5) Pronunciation Tasks pp. 7, 14
6) p. 152, ex. 4
7) p.152, ex. 5
8) p.153, ex 6, 7, 8
1) What kinds of assimilation do you know?
2) Speak on the direction of assimilation. Exemplify your statements.
3) What are the degrees of assimilation? Illustrate.
4) What conditions are responsible for the modification of sounds?
1) Vasiliev V.A. English Phonetics. M., 1980, p. 70-86
2) Leontiev S.F. A Theoretical Course of English Phonetics. M., 1989, p. 145-150
Main Theoretical Concepts:
Accomodation (adaptation) is the modification in the articulation of a vowel under the influence of an adjacent consonant or vice versa.
The accomodated sound does not change its main phonemic features and is pronounced as a variant of the same phoneme slightly modified under the influence of a neighbouring sound.
There are 3 main types of accomodation:
1) An unrounded variant of a consonant phoneme is replaced by its rounded variant under the influence of a following rounded vowel phoneme
e.g. unrounded variant → rounded variant
tea [tJ] too[tH]
less [les] loose [l Hs]
2) A fully back variant of a back vowel phoneme is replaced by its slightly advanced (fronted) variant under the influence of the preceding mediolingual phoneme [j]
e.g. fully back variant of [H] → fronted variant
booty ['bHtI] beauty ['bjHtI]
moon ['mHn] music ['mjHzIk]
3) a vowel phoneme is represented by its slightly more open variant before the dark [l] under the influence of its back secondary focus.
e.g. a close vowel sound → slightly more open
bed ['bed] bell ['bel]
ten ['ten] tell ['tel]
The modifications are conditioned by the complementary distribution of the phonemes.
Will Earl be thirty on his birthday next Thursday?
2) Ship or Sheep U-12
3) Listening 1 U-12
4) p. 152 ex.1
5) p. 152 ex. 3
6) Transcribe the text, underline the modified consonant and vowel phonemes. Define the type of accomodation.
1) What is accomodation?
2) What types of accomodation can you name? Illustrate your statements.
1) Vasiliev V.A. English Phonetics. 1980, p. 74-75, 86
2) Leontieva S.F. A Theoretical Course of English Phonetics. M., 1989, p. 145-150.
ELISION. TEST: ASSIMILATION, ACCOMODATION, ELISION
Main Theoretical Concepts:
Elision is the process due to which one of the neighbouring sounds is not realized in rapid or careless speech.
The phenomenon occurs both within words and at word boundaries.
Elision can be historical and contemporary. English spelling is full of 'silent' letters which bear witness to historical elision.
e.g. walk [wL], knee [nJ], knight [nQIt], write [rQIt], etc.
The most common cases of contemporary elision are the following: elision of [t, d] in
a) [ft,st,St,Tt,vd,zd,Dd] sequences: waste paper ['weIs peIpq]
b) [pt, kt, bd, gd, Ct, Gd] sequences: trapped by ['trxp bQI]
c) [md, nd, Nd] sequences: slammed the door ['slxm Dq dL]
In a), b), c) cases elision most frequently removes the marker of past tense in verbs. The meaning is usually clear from the context.
There are some words and verbal forms in which elision frequently exists in everyday speech. They are:
1. months and clothes with elided dental fricatives: [mAnTs]→ [ mAns], [ klquDz] → [klquz]
2. fifth and sixth elide the consonant which precede [T]: [fIfT] → [fIf], [sIksT] → [sIkT]
3. Sound [v] is elided before [D]: seven of those apples [sevqn q Dqu xplz], six of the best [sIks q Dq best]
Before other consonants, at more rapid tempo elision takes place: two pounds of pears [tH pQunz q peqz], a pint of milk [q pQInt q mIlk]
Sound [v] is elided before [m], at more rapid tempo: give me your word [gI mI jL wE:d], leave me some more pudding [lJ mI sq mL pudIN], he mustn't have my share [hI mAsnt hx mQI Seq]
4. tt is reduced to tin the following verbal forms: I want to drive [QI wPntq drQIv], We've got to be careful [wJv gPtq bI keqful]
5. going to has the form [gqnq] in all cases except very careful speech: We're going to move house [wIq gqnq mHv hQus]
There is a tendency nowadays to pronounce sounds which are not pronounced as a result of historical elision: often [Pfn] → [Pftqn]
Assimilation in English differs from the Russian mainly along the lines of direction: progressive voicing or devoicing is very rare in Russian, but quite common in English. It occurs in the following cases:
1) Contracted forms of the verbs, when the ending s is preceded by a voiced or a voiceless consonant: Bob's gone, that's right.
2) Suffixes –(e)s of the nouns in the plural, or the third person singular: girls, rooms, books, writes.
3) The possessive suffix –s' or –'s: Jack's hat, Bob's dog.
4) The past indefinite suffix –ed : played, worked, lived
Cases of English regressive voicing or devoicing are very rare: five pence [fQIfpqns], grooseberry [gHzbrI]; these are the cases of historical assimilation.
Regressive voicing or devoicing in Russian is obligatory both within a word and at the word boundary: пробка, сказка, воз сена, под столом.
Regressive assimilation of this type is very rare inside words in English: newspaper [njHspeIpq].
However it is observed in word boundaries in rapid, careless speech (see above).
Care should be taken to avoid regressive assimilation in such English words as tennis ball [tenIs bLl], blackboard [blxkbLd] and at the word boundaries: English book [INglIS buk], like that [lQIk Dxt], these people [DJz pJpl].
One of the policemen told them that there was a photographer at the corner.
2) Ship or Sheep U-13
3) Listening I U-13
4) p. 154 ex. 9
5) p. 154 ex. 10
6) p. 154 ex. 11
7) p. 154 ex. 12
1) What is elision?
2) Give the examples of contemporary elision. Name the possible cases.
1) Vasiliev V. A. English Phonetics. 1980, p.75-86
2) Leontieva S.F. A Theoretical Course of English Phonetics. M., 1989, p. 150 -151.
1. Give the definition of
2. The main types of assimilation, its direction, its degrees; the conditions. Give examples.
3. Types of accomodation.
4. Kinds of elision
Practical Control Tasks:
1. Read the words, observe the stronger aspiration of [p, t, k] before long vowels and diphthongs. Compare with the Russian [п, т, к] pronounced without aspiration.
port tar car порт
Peter table cable торт
power tower cow кот
pit tip cat пар
2. Describe the difference in the transition from [p] to [L] in the words port and spot.
3. Read the pairs of words, describe the mechanism of voiceless fortis, voiced lenis difference, which is functional here.
plight – blight try – dry crate – great
found – bound tune – dune piece – bees
penny – Benny park – bark twelve – dwell
4. Describe the mechanism of the articulatory difference between the [e] in hen, hell and between the [H] in tool, tune
5. Read the word combinations below. Observe and explain the mechanism of articulation of two plosionless stops.
help Peter – сноп пшеницы
club building – клуб был полон
at times – оттуда
good day – под домом
black coffee – как когда
6. What mechanism is affected by assimilation in the pronunciation of [r] in the words string, strike, of [m] in the words smell, smoke or [j] in the words student, suit?
7. Explain the mechanism of [k] to [D] transition in the combination like that. What mistake can be made by the Russian students in the articulation of [kD]?
8. Pronounce the words and word combinations. Underline the sounds affected by assimilation, describe its type.
breadth, wealth, at that, afraid, apron, thrive
9. Pronounce the words correctly, underline the two plosives, explain the articulatory difference in the CC transition in English and in Russian.
apt – аптека helped – обточка fact – факт
shopkeeper – шапка begged – когда
10. Arrange these English and Russian words under the headings: (1) aspiration, no aspiration; (2) palatalization a) loose CV transition, b) close CV transition; (3) labialization, labialization with the lip protrusion.
top, bee, pit, built, port, meal, cope, deep, beauty, tarn, corn, music, pepper, onion, peace, come, lean, car, cable, lion, dean, топь, поле, тина, Коля, тесто, роль, сила, лом, ток, день, пень, соль, ряд, пел, рёв, бук, кило, мел, вилы, полк, ком, дуло, coop, tool, tall, call, gorge, goose, doom, dawn, room, thorn.
11. Arrange these words under the headings: (1) lateral plosion, (2) nasal plosion, (3) loss of plosion (two plosionless stops).
actor, curdled, muddle, needless, mottled, Britain, begged, oughtn't, at last, what kind, admit, back, madness, witness, big books, partner, slept, cotton, great number, sudden, captain, top coat, red light, black goat, ripe cheese, huddle, at night, good looks.
12. Explain how assimilation affects the place of articulation in the vowels.
[tR – kR, kJ – kR, kHl – kJn, jes – pjHtq, Jl - kJp]
13. Transcribe these words and word combinations. Read them. Explain possible mistake in the CC transition.
anecdote, birthday, blackboard, medicine, this book, let's go, what's the time, sixth, his thing, pass them, is that, fifths, Smith's there, soothes them, in the
14. Give your own examples and explain the difference between the English and Russian articulatory transition in cases of (1) aspiration, (2) palatalization, (3) labialization.
15. Give your own examples and explain the difference between the English and Russian articulatory transition in cases of assimilation affecting (1) the work of the vocal cords, (2) the place of articulation and the active organ of speech, (3) the manner of noise production, (4) the position of the soft palate.
16. Give your own examples and explain the difference between the English and Russian articulatory transitions in cases of the (1) nasal plosion, (2) lateral plosion, (3) loss of plosion.
17. Give your own examples to illustrate different cases of elision.
Main Theoretical Concepts:
Syllable – is one or more speech sounds forming a single uninterrupted unit of utterance which may be a whole word, e.g. lamp; or a part of it, e.g. second.
1. In English the syllable is formed:
a) by any vowel (a monophthong or a diphthong) along or in combination with one or more consonants
e.g. are [R] = vowel (+ consonant)
b) by a word – final sonorant (lateral or nasal) immediately preceded by a consonant
e.g. bottle = bo – ttle [bP-tl] – consonant + sonorant
2. But if sonorants in word – final position are preceded by a vowel sound they are not syllabic
syllabicnon – syllabic
3. [w, j] are never syllabic, they are always syllable initial.
The syllabic consonants are [n, l]. There are few words with the syllabic [m]. The syllabic [N] occurs as a result of progressive assimilation of the forelingual consonant [ n] to the preceding back lingual consonant [k, g]
e.g. [beI - kqn] → [beI - kN]
4. Many English words are pronounced with a neutral vowel before the final sonorant. The sonorant becomes non – syllabic
e.g. radical [rx - dIkl] or [rx – dI - kql]
5. Many English words are spelt with a vowel letter before the final sonorant and have only one pronunciation with a syllabic final consonant
E.g. garden [gRdn], season [sJzn]
6. The sonorant [n] is always syllabic in the contracted negative forms of auxiliary and modal verbs
E.g. isn't couldn't mightn't
wasn't hasn't oughtn't
7. The sound may lose their syllabic character when they occur in the middle of a word before a vowel belonging to a suffix
syllabicnon – syllabic
listen [lI-sn] listening [lIs-nIN]
drizzle [drI-zl] drizzling [drIz-lIN]
8. Every syllable has a definite structure of form depending on the kind of speech sound it ends in. There are two types of syllable distinguished from this point of view.
1) a syllable which ends in a vowel sound (an open syllable)
2) a syllable which ends in a consonant sound (a closed syllable)
They are phonetic syllables.
- No pains no gains.
- To call a spade a spade.
2) Ship or Sheep U-14, 15
3) Listening U-14, 15
4) Pronunciation Tasks U-42
5) Divide the words into syllables: needless, Britain, huddle, possibly, suppose, boundary, temporary, reasonable, parliament.
1) What is a syllable?
2) What sounds can make a syllable?
1. Vasiliev V.A. English Phonetics. 1980, p. 86-89
Main Theoretical Concepts:
I. Syllable division is effected by an increase in the force of utterance including an increase in muscular tension and in the force of exhalation or the onset of a fresh breath pulse at the beginning of a syllable
1) [wIDQut] An increase of the force of utterance takes place at the beginning of the consonant [D]. The point of syllable division is between the vowel [I] and the consonant [D]
2) [wID-Qut] – an increase of the force of utterance takes place at the beginning of the diphthong [Qu]
II. Correct syllable division at the junction of words may be of phonological importance because the wrong syllable division may lead to the confusion or to a phonological mistake
e.g. She saw them eat [SI sL Dqm Jt]
She saw the meat [SI sL Dq mJt]
III. Phonetic syllables do not coincide with the graphic ones: writ-ing [rQI-tIN], bet-ter [be-tq], mak-er [meI-kq]
IV. The division of English words into syllables is governed by the following principle rules:
1) Because of their weak off – glide the English long monophthongs, diphthongs and unstressed short vowels [I, q, u] always occur in a phonologically open syllable.
The point of syllable division is immediately after them when they are separated from a following syllabic sound by only one consonant
e.g. ordinarily [L-dI-nx-rI-lI], meeting [mJ-tIN]
2) A short stressed vowel in the same position - when it is separated from a following syllabic sound by only one consonant always occurs in a closed syllable, the syllable boundary being within the consonant
V. Functions of syllables:
1) constructive - syllables form words, phrases, sentences
2) distinctive: a nice house [q nQIs hQus]
an ice house [qn QIs hQus]
I scream [QI skrJm]
ice – cream [QIskrJm]
an ocean [qn quSn]
a notion [q nquSn]
1) Ship or Sheep U – 15
2) Listening U – 15
3) Pronunciation tasks U – 42
4) Devide the words suggested by the teacher into syllables.
1) What influences the syllable division? Give the examples.
1. Vasiliev V.A. English Phonetics. M., 1980, p. 86-89
2. Leontieva S.F. A Theoretical Course of English Phonetics. M., 1989
1. Answer the questions
- What is a syllable?
- What makes a syllable?
- How can we divide a word into syllables?
2. Divide the suggested words into syllables.
UNIT 16 – 17
THE ACCENTUAL STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH WORDS
Closely connected with the syllabic structure of words is their accentualstructure, because it's the syllable that bears what is known as word – stress or word accent.
The accentual structure of a word can be shown graphically by the stress marks placed above (primary stress) or below (secondary stress).
[ ImpLt]; [Im pLt]; [In fInItIv]; [ IndI vIzI bIlItI]
The basic rules of English word accentuation are as follows:
a) In most disyllabic words the accent falls on the initial syllable : ready [ redI], mother [mADq], colour [ kAlq]
b) In disyllabic words with a prefix which has lost its meaning the stress falls on the second syllable, that is to say, on the root syllable: become [bI kAm], begin [bI gIn], pronounce [prq nQuns]
c) In disyllabic verbs ending in –ate, -ise, -ze, -fy the stress falls on the last syllable: dictate [dIk teIt], surprise [sq prQIz], defy [dI fQI]
In most words of three or four syllables the accent falls on the third syllable from the end of the word: family [ fxmIlI], cinema [ sInqmq]
Most words of more than four syllables have two stresses: primary (nuclear) and secondary. The primary stress falls either on the third or second syllable from the end. In most words the secondary stress falls on the syllable separated from the nuclear syllable by one unstressed syllable: pronunciation [prq nAnsI eIS(q)n]
Most English words which have two primary stresses are formed with prefixes or suffixes. One of two primary stresses falls on the root syllable, the other - on the suffix or the prefix: Chinese [ CQI nJz], misprint [ mIs prInt].
The compound nouns have:
a) the nuclear accent on the second element the first being unstressed: mankind [mxn kInd], shortcoming [SLt kAmIN]
b) the nuclear accent on the first element and the secondary on the second one which is pronounced on a low level pitch: hair – dresser [ heq dresq]
c) the pre – nuclear primary accent on the first element and the nuclear one on the second one: ice cream [ QIs krJm], tea – pot [ tJ pPt]
1) Write the words in the groups according to the accentual types.
2) Write the words in groups according to the accentual types indicated in the following table
|Words With the Suffixes Stressed||Words With the Suffixes Unstressed|
4) Transcribe (marking the stress) and read the following words.
5) Answer the theoretical questions
- The kite went higher and higher into the bright blue sky.
- There was a young lady of Niger who smiled as she rode on a tiger. By the end of the ride was a lady inside and the smile – on the face of the tiger.
7) Ship or Sheep U – 16
8) Listening I U – 16
Boys often talk at the top of their voices.
10) Ship or Sheep U – 17
11) Listening I U - 17
12) Pronunciation Tasks U - 27 Syllables and Stresses
U – 28 Patterns of Stress in Words
U – 29 Stress Patterns in Numbers
U – 30 Finding out About Stress Patterns
U – 31 Pronouncing Unstressed Syllables.
1) Vasiliev V. A. English Phonetics. M., 1980
UNIT 18 – 19
SENTENCE – STRESS
Main Theoretical Concepts:
Sentence – stress is the greater prominence with which one or more words in a sentence are pronounced as compared with the other words of the same sentence. The greater prominence is achieved by a combination of the following means:
1. by uttering the stressed syllable with greater muscular tension;
2. changing the pitch level or pitch direction with which the stressed syllable is pronounced;
3. pronouncing the stressed syllables longer than they would be pronounced when unstressed;
4. pronouncing the vowel of a stressed syllable without changing its quality.
Sentence – stress serves to single out words in the sentence according to their relative semantic importance.
e.g. But Andrew was not calm (Andrew, not, calm are stressed because they are most important semantically)
Intonation patterns containing a number of syllables consist of the following parts: the pre – head, the head, the nucleus and the tail.
The pre – head includes unstressed and half – stressed syllables preceding the first stressed syllable.
The head includes the stressed and unstressed syllables beginning with the first stressed syllable.
The last stressed syllable is called the nucleus.
The unstressed and half – stressed that follow the nucleus are called the tail.
e.g. It was a very sunny day yesterday.
It was a … - the pre – head
…very sunny – the head
…day… - the nucleus
…yesterday. – the tail
The rises and the falls that take place in the nucleus or start with it are called nuclear tones.
The nucleus is the most important part of the intonation pattern as it defines the communicative type of the sentence, determines the semantic value of the intonation–group, indicates the communicative center of the intonation–group or of the whole sentence.
The communicative center is associated with the most important word or words of the intonation–group or of the sentence.
The nuclear tone of the final intonation–group is determined by the communicative type of the whole sentence.
The communicative types of sentences are differentiated in speech according to the aim of the utterance from the point of view of communication, i.e. in order to show if the sentence expresses a statement of fact, a question, a command or an exclamation.
There are four communicative types of sentence:
e.g. I like music.
e.g. Can you prove it?
3. Imperative questions or commands
e.g. Try it again
e.g. Right you are!
The intonation pattern of the non–final intonation–group, mainly its nuclear tone, is determined by the semantic value of the intonation–group and by its connection with the following one.
The falling nuclear tone shows that the non–final intonation–group is complete, important by itself and is not closely connected with the following intonation – group.
A longer pause after an intonation–group pronounced with the falling tone makes the intonation–group even more significant.
e.g. I'll tell him all when he comes.
The rising nuclear tone shows that the non–final intonation–group is closely connected in meaning with the following intonation–group, is not important by itself and implies continuation.
e.g. Generally speaking, I pre fer tennis.
The intonation pattern is also modified by the speaker's attitude towards his utterance:
e.g. Why? – detached, even unsympathetic
Why? – wondering
In English notional words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.) are generally stressed. Form – words and most pronouns (personal and possessive mainly) are generally unstressed. But any part of speech may be stressed if it is semantically important.
E.g. What is he going to do? – do is the communicative center.
What is he going to do? – he is the communicative center.
– Конец работы –
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