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Types of Tails

Types of Tails - раздел Лингвистика, Методическое пособие по практической фонетике 1. A Low Tail Is One In Which Everything That Comes After A Falling – Tone Nu...

1. A low tail is one in which everything that comes after a falling – tone nucleus is pronounced at a low pitch.

E.g. I know nothing about it.




2. A rising tail occurs when all the syllables that come after a rising tone nucleus gradually rise in pitch.

E.g. I promise I won't tell anyone.




The tail may contain not only unstressed syllables but stressed syllables as well, carrying a weaker stress.

Practical Tasks:

1) Ship or Sheep U – 28

2) Listening U – 5b

3) Pronunciation Tasks U – 15


Sound [g]

If you go digging in the garden don't forget to get your old grey gloves.



5) Ship or Sheep U – 29

6) Listening U – 6a

7) Pronunciation Tasks U –14


Sound [s]

Sister Suzie sits and sews sailor's skirts.



9) Ship or Sheep U – 30

10) Listening II U - 6a

Control Questions:

1) What tones, types of head, pr – head, tail do you know?

2) Pronounce the phrases with different intonation contours.

3) Draw a tonogramme. Find a pre – head, head and tail. Use different types of them and state the effect of it.



1) Antipova E. English Intonation.

2) Arakin V.D. Practical Course of English. M., 1978

3) Vasiliev V.A. English Intonation. M., 1980, pp. 100 – 118

4) O'Connor. Better English Pronunciation


UNIT 31 – 33



Main Theoretical Concepts:

Rhythm in speech is the recurrence of the stressed syllables in a sense – group at certain intervals of time. In connected English speech stressed syllables have a strong tendency to follow each other as nearly as possible at equal intervals of time between the stressed syllables.

A stressed syllables pronounced together with the unstressed syllables forms a rhythmic group. A sense – group may consist of one or more rhythmic groups. If there are several rhythmic groups in a sense – group, each of them takes the same time to pronounce.

Changes in the tempo of English speech caused by the regularity of its rhythm are closely connected with changes in the length of English sounds, especially vowels.

The characteristic features of English speech rhythm may be summed up as follows:

1. The regular recurrence of stressed syllables, which results in:

a) the pronunciation of each rhythmic group in a sentence – group in the same period of time, irrespective of the number of unstressed syllables in it;

b) the influence of this feature of English speech rhythm upon the tempo of speech and the length of sounds.

2. The alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables, which results in the influence of rhythm upon word – stress and sentence – stress.


Practical Tasks:

1) Copy out the following sentence, mark their intonation and read them.

2) Read the following exercises keeping a steady rhythm.

3) Practice the following poem.

This is the house that Jack built.

This is the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.

This is the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.

This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.

This is the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.

This is the caw with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.


Sound [z]

The lazy zebra called Desmond is dozing at the Zoo.



5) Ship or Sheep U – 31

6) Listening II U – 7a


Sound [S]

She sells the sea – shells on the sea shore.

The shells that she sells are sea – shells, I'm sure.



8) Ship or Sheep U – 32

9) Listening II U – 7b

10) Pronunciation Tasks U – 32, 33, 34




Sound [Z]

I can't measure the pleasure I have in viewing this treasure at leasure.



12) Ship or Sheep U – 33

13) Listening II U – 8a



1) Jazz Chants.

2) O'Connor J.D. The Preception of Time Intervals. University College, 1965

3) Pike K. Practical Phonetics of Rhythm Waves. 1962.

4) Woodrow H. A. Quantitative Study of Rhythm.

5) Vailionetics.M., 1980


UNIT 34 – 46




Main Theoretical Concepts:


Intonation Pattern Statements Questions Imperatives Exclamations
IP – I (low p.–h.)+low fall (+tail) final, categoric, calm, reserved   E.g. It's mother.   calm, serious, flat, reserved, very often unsympathetic   E.g. Which?   calm, unemotional, serious   E.g. Phone him. calm, unsurprised, reserved   E.g. Thank you.
IP – II (low p.–h.)+descending head +low fall (+tail) 1. The falling head 2. The stepping head 3. The high head final, categoric, considered   E.g. I think it is going to rain. serious, responsible, intense, often suggesting irrilability or impatience   E.g. What do you want it for? firm, serious, pressing   E.g. Leave it entirely to me, then. rather emphatic   E.g. Isn't it wonderful.
IP – III (low p.–h.) +low rise (+tail) not categoric, non – final, encouraging further conversation, reserving judgement.   E.g. I think so.   wondering, mildly puzzled E.g. How?   disapproving, sceptical   E.g. Must we do as he says? calmly warning, soothing   E.g. Careful. reserving judgement, encouraging further conversation, expressing calm, casual acknowledgement, often heard in greetings   E.g. Thank you.
IP – IV (low p.–h.)+descending head +low rise (+tail) 1. The falling head 2. The stepping head 3. The high head not categoric, non – final, soothing, reassuring in echoes questioning, sometimes surprised   E.g. It's not so bad.   expressing sympathy, interest, with the nuclear tone on the interrogative word, puzzled E.g. What time are you leaving?   interest E.g. Are you ready to leave? soothing, encouraging, calmly patronizing   E.g. Don't worry. encouraging, airy, often used in leavetakings and in bright and friendly greetings   E.g. Good morning.
IP – V (low p.–h.)+(descending head) +mid - level (+tail) It is used in non – final intonation groups, expressing non – finality without any impression of expectancy. E.g. Yesterday L stayed in all day.  
IP – VI (low p.–h.)+fall rise (+tail) concern, reproach, contradictions, correction, hurt feelings, sometimes soothing   E.g. That wasn't my fault.        


Practical Tasks:


Sound [C]

Charles is a cheerful chicken farmer.



2) Ship or Sheep U – 34

3) Listening U – 8a


Sound [G]

The aged urged the jury to be just but generous.



5) Ship or Sheep U – 35

6) Listening U – 8b


Sound [f]

- Five fine fellows met at five on the first of February.

- A fly and a flea in a flue were imprisoned. So what could they do? Said the fly, "Let us fly". "Let us fly", said the flea, so they flew through a flaw a flue.



8) Ship or Sheep U – 36

9) Listening U – 9a


Sound [v]

Eve is very vain and Vivienne is vivacious and full of verve.



11) Ship or Sheep U – 37

12) Listening II U – 9b


Sound [w]

We wonder whether the weather will weather the wether or whether the weather the wether will kill.


14) Ship or Sheep U – 38

15) Listening II U – 10a


Sound [j]

Yesterday I heard a curious and beautiful new tune.



17) Ship or Sheep U – 39

18) Listening II U – 10 ex. 2, 3


Sound [h]

The hammer man hammers the hammer on the hard highroad.



20) Ship or Sheep U – 40

21) Listening II U – 10 b ex. 2


Sound [T]

The Leith police dismisseth us.



23) Ship or Sheep U – 41

24) Listening II U – 10 b ex. 3


Sound [D]

Birds of feather flock together.



26) Ship or Sheep U – 42

27) Listening II U – 11 a


Sound [m]

Since time immemorial the moon has moved men to make poems.



29) Ship or Sheep U – 43

30) Listening II U – 11 b


Sound [N]

Playing ping – pong makes me hungry.



32) Ship or Sheep U – 44

33) Listening II U – 12 a


Sound [n]

Ned's numerous neighbours are nice persons.



35) Ship or Sheep U – 45

36) Listening II U – 12 b


Sound [l]

Little Lady Lilly lost lovely locket.


38) Ship or Sheep U – 46

39) Listening II U – 13 a ex. 2,3


Control Questions:

1. Characterise the main intonation contours. Speak on their usage.


1) Arakin V.D. Practical Course of English. M., 1978

2) Leontieva S.F. A Theoretical Course of English Phonetics. M., 1989

3) Antipova.E. English Intonation.

4) O'Connor. Better English Pronunciation.


UNIT 47 – 49



Main Theoretical Concepts:

Intonation of direct address at the beginning of the sentence is stressed. It's pronounced with the low - falling nuclear tone in formal serious speech and with the falling – rising tone to attract the listener's attention or in a friendly conversation.

E.g. Children, listen to me.

Mary, come here.

Intonation of direct address in the middle or at the end of the sentence is ordinarily pronounced as the unstressed or half – stressed tail of the preceding intonation – group. After the low – falling nucleus it can also be pronounced with the low – rising tone.

E.g. I say, Mike, I've just had a wire from Mary.

That's all right, darling.

Good morning, Mrs. Wood.


Practical Tasks:

1) Listen to the following sentence and repeat them in the intervals.

2) Address your friend placing direct address at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the sentence.


Sound [l]

Lilacs and lilies of the valley are lovely flowers.



4) Ship or Sheep U – 47

5) Listening II U - 13a


Sound [r]

Round the rugged rock the ragged rascal ran. The ragged rascal ran round the rugged rock.



7) Ship or Sheep U – 48

8) Listening II U –13b

9) Ship or Sheep U – 49

10) Listening II – 14 a



1) Arakin V.D. Practical Course of English. p. 359

2) Vasiliev V.A. English Phonetics. M., 1980


UNIT – 50




UNIT – 51


Practical Tasks:

1) Listening U – 14b


UNIT - 52



Main Theoretical Concepts:


Practical Tasks:

1) Listening U – 15a



UNIT – 53



Main Theoretical Concepts:


Practical Tasks:

1) Listening U – 15b



UNIT – 54



Main Theoretical Concepts:



Practical Tasks:

1) Listening U – 16a



UNIT – 55



Main Theoretical Concepts:


Practical Tasks:

1) Listening U – 16b






старшего преподавателя кафедры английского языка ЧелГУ Мамоновой Ю.В. на Программу и методические указания по практической фонетике для 1 курса, составленную старшим преподавателем кафедры английского языка ЧелГУ Татаренко С.В. и преподавателем кафедры английского языка ЧелГУ Плёнкиной О.Н.


Пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса специальности лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация. Данная работа является необходимым методическим материалом, так как она поможет студентам в освоении тем "Система гласных", "Система согласных", "Ударение", "Интонация, ритм, мелодия, темп английской речи".

Пособие снабжено богатым теоретическим и практическим материалом, позволяющим лучше понять закономерности изучаемого языка. Подобранный теоретический материал, несомненно, является хорошим подспорьем для правильного понимания принципов артикуляции и произношения английской речи, особенностей системы ударения и интонации. Практический же материал необходим для закрепления полученных знаний и включает в себя упражнения для губ и языка, скороговорки, диалоги, стихотворения английских поэтов.

Одной из задач данного методического пособия является научение транскрибированию и интонированию текста, поэтому большое внимание уделено вопросам интонирования в конкретных речевых ситуациях.

– Конец работы –

Эта тема принадлежит разделу:

Методическое пособие по практической фонетике

Методическое пособие по практической фонетике составлено с целью формирования у студентов необходимых навыков и умений обучения правильной... Пособие предназначено для студентов курса факультета лингвистики и перевода...

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