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COMPOUND TUNES. - раздел Лингвистика, Практическая фонетика Expressiveness Of Speech Is Often The Result Of Using More Than One Kinetic T...
Expressiveness of speech is often the result of using more than one kinetic tone in an intonation group. Intonation groups having more than one kinetic tone are called Compound Tunes.
e.g. I’ve ˈdone ‵nothing but ‵worry.
The most common types of compound tunes are:
High Rise + High Rise Low Rise + Fall Fall + Fall-Rise Fall-Rise + Fall Fall + Fall
High Rise + High Rise – typically occurs in General questions. It gives them a feeling of surprise or incredulity. The same feeling can be expressed by the High Irregular Prehead before the Emphatic High Rise, but this compound tune has a rather more friendly effect.
e.g. Compare: ¯Aren’t you ˝ready yet? ˊAren’t you ˝ready yet?
A compound tune may contain more than one High Rising tone in the Head. This intonation pattern is often used in questions addressed to children. e.g. ˊWon’t you ˊwait for your ˊsister?
Low Rise + Fall – usually gives a feeling of:
ü mystification and puzzlement to questions; ‚Why didn’t he ‵wait?
ü persuasiveness to statements and imperatives; ‚Go and ‶see him.
ü wonderment to exclamations. ‚How an‶noying!
Fall + Fall-Rise – usually serves to give special emphasis. The Fall-Rise in the Nucleus is very often of a low emphatic variety, which has a more apologetic note than the High Fall-Rise, especially in statements. e.g. I ‵don’t think he ought to be ‚angry.
Imperatives with this compound tune often have a suggestion of reproachfulness.
e.g. ‵Don’t make so much ‚fuss about it.
Fall-Rise + Fall – serves to emphasize and to give a sense of contrast to some word or words coming earlier than the Nucleus. Such compound tunes are milder in feeling because of the Fall-Rise in the Head.
e.g. – Will you make another attempt?
– I’d `ˊrather ‵not.
Fall + Fall – gives emphasis to or expresses a contrast on some prenuclear items. This compound tune often imparts a feeling of: insistence to special and general questions; dogmatism to statements; energy to imperatives; extra emphasis to exclamations.
e.g. Why ‶ever didn’t you ‶say so be‵fore?
We must ‶tell him and ‶worn him im‵mediately.
‶Don’t ever ‶do that a‶gain. ‵What a ‵wonderful sur‵prise!
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