рефераты конспекты курсовые дипломные лекции шпоры

Реферат Курсовая Конспект

Ex.8 Read the following words. Note that they have complete vowel reduction.

Ex.8 Read the following words. Note that they have complete vowel reduction. - раздел Лингвистика, Раздел I. Сегментная фонетика Britain, Curtain, Separate, Metal, Medal; Interest, Model, Parcel, T...

Britain, curtain, separate, metal, medal;

Interest, model, parcel, travel;

Medicine, professional, revolutionary.


Ex. 9 Find the words in which unstressed vowels are not reduced:

1.government, assurance, terrible, crock ware

2.translation, improvable, partial, monotonous

3.meaningless, soluble, wisdom, trainer

4.monkey, canvas, carpet, dismount


Ex. 10 Read the limerick and underline the words with [ə], [I]:

There once was a student named Bessor

Whose knowledge grew lesser and lesser

It at last grew so small,

He knew nothing at all,

And today he’s a college professor.


Ex. 11 Read these twisters and underline the words with [ə], [I]:

The hammerman hammers the hammer on the hard highroad.

Little lady Lilly lost her lovely locket. Lucky little Lucy found the lovely locket. Lovely little locket lay in Lucy’s pocket. Lazy little Lucy lost the lovely locket!

Ex. 12 Read the proverbs, explain the reading of the unstressed vowels:

1. Appearances are deceitful.

2. Honesty is the best policy.

3. Better late than never.

4. Love is a malady without cure.

5. Little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

6. Don’t make a mountain out of a molehill.

7. Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

8. Accident will happen.

9. Clearliness is next to godliness.

10. Desperate disease must have desperate remedies.


Ex. 13 Read the following words and pay attention to the reading of unstressed vowels:

Dizzy, remedial, examination, painful, remedy, extract, fever, giddy, recovery, malady, giddiness, harmful, injury, illness, injection, inflammation capable, record, competitor, chessman, curable, handicap, amateur, sensible, garment, recovery, expert, stressful, careless, judgement, remedy, doctor, patient, medical, inflammation, to operate, ambulance, ointment, prescription, painful, treatment, cancer, ailment.


Ex. 14 Write down the unstressed vowels, which the following words have:

clumsy, ointment, stressful, complication, dormitory, treatment, sickness, vitality, surgery, conscious, deficiency, condition, shivery, breathless, ailment, cavity, therapy, bandage, appointment, funny, rocket, nature, dollar, bottom, Poland, costume, samba, attendance, capable, student, message, delicate, freedom, awful, careless.



Ex. 15 hoose the words, in which the unstressed vowel is not reduced and has its primary alphabetical meaning. Explain the rule:

Stamina, contest, participant, costume, sedentary, snooker, polo, badminton, racket, victory, samba, hockey.


Ex. 16 Extract the words with unstressed vowels and group them according to the sound, which they denote:

Stress is a disease of the twentieth century. Life has never been faster and jobs have never been more stressful than they are today. People have to perform more and more work under difficult and more stressful conditions. Many people suffer from stress and the illness it can cause. But as this situation is becoming recognized, people shouldn’t have to fear comments such as, “He’s had a nervous breakdown. Can’t take the pressure, you know.” This is because more people are recognizing that stress is a natural reaction – it is a reaction of a person’s body to pressure, either from the outside world or from the inner world of emotions and physical organs. We can’t avoid stress. And we can’t help ourselves, or others, until we know more about it. Not all stress is bad and perhaps if we understand it better we could make the most of it.


Ex. 17 Find the superfluous word in each group (unstressed vowels):

[o:] – ׀football, ׀terror, ׀record;

[I] – ׀phoneme, ׀profit, ׀fifties;

[æ] – can׀teen, fan׀tastic, sex׀tet;

[e] – sen׀sation, ׀congress, ׀drawback;

[i:] – re׀set, re׀group, e׀lusive.



Ex. 18 Read the proverbs and explain how to pronounce the underlined words:

1. Prevention is better than cure.

2. A merry heart is a good medicine.

3. Caution is the parent of cure.

4. To be a cut throat competition.


Ex. 19 Transcribe the following words and explain why the unstressed vowel is reduced or not:

ba׀nana ׀profit pre׀vented ׀tribune ma׀chine ׀ticket ׀statue po׀litical ׀lovely ׀dangerous ׀movement ׀horrible ׀echo ׀giddy





– Конец работы –

Эта тема принадлежит разделу:

Раздел I. Сегментная фонетика

Лингвогуманитарный колледж Учреждения образования... Минский государственный лингвистический университет... Раздел I Сегментная фонетика...

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The types, structure and functions of syllables in English.
Syllable formation in English is based on the phonological opposition vowel-consonant. Vowels are usually syllabic while consonants are not with the exeptions of [l], [m], [n], which become syllabi

Syllable division rules for simple words and parts of compound words
vowel intersyllabic sounds boundary examples notes I. Short stressed a) single con

One word in each set has a different number of syllables from the others. Decide which it is, then check with the recording.
Example: lengths if table on destiny chocolate

Ex.3 Divide into syllables and determine where the syllable boundary lies.
  1. goodness 5. about 9. Saturday 2. hotter

Ex.4 Transcribe the following words, divide them into syllables and explain the rule.
  1. ninety 6. sentence 2. middle 7. vowel

The primary and the secondary meaning of letters.
In English one letter can denote a few different sounds (polysemantic letters). That’s why there are the primary and the secondary sound meanings of them. The primary meaning of a letter is the sou

The primary sound meaning of vowels in different types of syllables.
In disyllabic and polysyllabic words the vowel letter has its alphabetical (long) meaning if: 1) it is separated from the following vowel letter or from the combinations –le, -re

meaning spelling examples exceptions I. Primary long 1) vowel + sounding vowel d

Reading of a stressed vowel in its short meaning. Short vowels of the English language.
If there is no indicator of length (it means the second vowel or a combination “gh” after a stressed vowel immediately or in one consonant) the English vowel is read shortly. The sh

Test II
  1. Divide into groups and transcribe these words: Worry, student, apricot, oppose, novel, after, magic, limit, visit, excuse, sentence, bypass, money, cinema, never,

Reading Vowels in Closed Syllables
# Meaning Context Examples Secondary indicators of vowel secondary meanings

Ex.4 Practice reading
idioms, sayings: He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. If the cap fits, wear it. Here today, gone tomorrow. Five fat friars frying fish.

Чтение двухэлементных сочетаний гласных

Principles of Reading Vowel Digraphs
1) The 1st letter is read in its primary long meaning: sea [i:], oak [əυ], etc.; 2) The 2nd letter is read in its primary long meaning: neu

Ex.5 Read the following words. Identify the sound of each line.
[ ] 1. food, boot, foolish, boost [ ] 2. good, cook, took, look [ ] 3. should, would, could [ ] 4. blood, flood [ ] 5. door, four, floor, boor [ ] 6. mo

Ex.7 Give 2 examples to each variant of pronunciation of the given digraph.
    [əυ] [aυ] [u:] OU[\

Ex. 22 Practice reading the following words.
The letter "a": pale, dale, rake, navy, table, ladle, staple, cradle, apron, sabre, latch, rack, jacket, quack, yank, jag, carry, parrot, garret, sparrow, barrel

Reading of Unstressed Vowels
Vowels in unstressed syllables in disyllabic and polysyllabic words usually denote the neutral sound [ə] and short [ı]. 1.The letters ‘e’, ‘

Ex. 1 Read the riddles. Try to guess the right answer. Transcribe the underlined words, explain the rules.
1) A man looks at the photo and says: “Brothers and sisters I have none, but this man’s father is my father’s son.” What relation is the man in the photograph to the man who is

Ex. 2 Learn the rhyme.
The Time-table of Lazy-bones Grundy.   Lazy-bones Grundy Must do sums for Monday. “And today it is Thursday”, Says lazy-bones Grundy, “So

Чтение согласных

Ex. 5 Read the proverbs. Explain the rules of reading.
1. To let the cat out of the bag. 2. Appearances are deceitful. 3. The devil is not so black as it is painted. 4. The tongue is

Reading of Endings -(e)s, -(e)d
The ending -(e)sof plural forms of nouns and of the 3rd singular present indefinite of verbs is read   how

A) with the ending -(e)s
inches, hands, chiefs, shoes, maps, boxes, safes, dishes, machines, roofs, classes, wives, babies, benches, books, bottles, boys, brings, burns, buzzes, cages, capes, cars, catches, cats, checks, c

B) with the ending -(e)d
acted, added, advised, agreed, begged, called, camped, carried, compiled, composed, concreted, concurred, crashed, decided, defended, diffe­red, dressed, ended, enjoyed, entered, explained, failed,

B) with the ending -(e)d
  [t] [d] [id]         For

Ex. 11 Read the proverbs. Explain the rules of reading.
1. He laughs best who laughs last. 2. What can’t be cured must be endured. 3. Exception proves the rule. 4. Nothing ventured, nothing gained. 5. Where the shoe p

Reading of combinations of vowels with consonants.
Letter combination sound Examples O + ld I+ld I+nd Igh A+consonants A+ll

Listen to the recording and decide which names you hear.
Example:I’ve invited ____Pete___ to join us. a) Pete b) Peter c) Pet   1. I’ve just been talking to __________________. a) Jan Lipma

Look at and listen to these pairs of words.
a. Peter and pepper. These start with the same consonant sound [p], but the following vowel sound is different: [pi:tə], [pepə]. b. Peter and pizza. T

Reading of English consonant clusters
English sibilants and interdental sounds which don’t have their equivalents in the Latin alphabet are denoted by combinations of consonants, the second element of which is “h”, e. g. she, ch

Ex.7 Sort out the words into columns according to the reading of consonant clusters.
Machinery, scheme, scythe, child, Thames, weather, chef, Christmas, Thompson, chick, than, chic, chord, chalice, cliché, Chaos, neither, thyme, thrift, cheek, though, thorn, thaw, thief.

Spot the homophones 1
isle / bard / beer / bored / caught / night / pale / cawed / chord / sly / died / dyer / cored / dough / flawed / toed / pear / meal / floored / teas / knew / heard / soar / heal / lacks / lax /

Spot the homophones 2
In the following conversation a large number of words have been replaced by homophones. Spot where they have been used and decide how the words should be written.   - Lousy w

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