Лекции по теоретической фонетике 17. The structure and functions of syllable in English - Лекция, раздел Лингвистика,
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Лекции по теоретической фонетике
Примерные вопросы для контроля знаний
1. Phonetics as a branch of linguistics. Phonetics and other disciplines. Applications of phonetics.
2. Branches of phonetics.
3. Aspects of the sound matter of language.
4. Components of the phonetic system of language.
5. National and regional pronunciation variants in English.
6. British and American pronunciation models.
7. Most distinctive features of BBC English and Network English.
8. The articulatory classification of English vowels.
9. The articulatory classification of English consonants.
10. Phoneme as many-sided dialectic unity of language. Types of allophones. Distinctive and irrelevant features of the phoneme.
11. Main phonological schools.
12. The system of vowel phonemes in English. Problem of diphthongs.
13. The system of consonant phonemes in English. Problem of affricates.
14. Modifications of English consonants and vowels in speech.
15. Alternations of speech sounds in English.
16. Theories on syllable division and formation.
17. The structure and functions of syllable in English.
18. Word stress in English.
19. Intonation and prosody: definition, functions, components, spheres of application.
20. The structure of English tone-group.
21. The phonological level of intonation.
22. Methods of phonetic analysis.
23. Phonostylistics. Types and styles of pronunciation in English.
24. Phonetics of the spoken discourse.
Phonetics as a branch of linguistics
Aspects and units of phonetics
Branches of phonetics
Methods of phonetic analysis
Phonetics is an independent branch of linguistics like lexicology or grammar. These linguistic sciences study language from three different points… Phonetics is a basic branch of linguistics. Neither linguistic theory nor…
The formation of the concept takes place in the brain of a speaker. This stage may be called psychological. The message formed within the brain is… (a) the articulatory aspect;
(b) the acoustic aspect;
We may consider the branches of phonetics according to these aspects. Articulatory phonetics is the study of the way the vocal organs are used to… Phoneticians are also interested in the way in which sound phenomena function… Besides the four branches of phonetics described above, there are other divisions of the science. We may speak of…
The oldest, simplest and most readily available method is the method of direct observation. This method consists in observing the movements and… Objective methods involve the use of various instrumental techniques… Acoustic phonetics comes close to studying physics and the tools used in this field enable the investigator to measure…
Regional and stylistic varieties of English pronunciation
Spoken and written language
Classification of pronunciation variants in English. British and American pronunciation models
Types and styles of pronunciation
The written form of language is usually a generally accepted standard and is the same throughout the country. But spoken language may vary from… Every national variety of language falls into territorial or regional… The literary spoken form has its national pronunciation standard. A standard may be defined as "a socially…
Lecture 3 Classification of English speech sounds
Articulatory classification of English consonants
Articulatory classification of English vowels
Russian phoneticians classify consonants according to the following principles: i) degree of noise; ii) place of articulation; iii) manner of… (I) There are few ways of seeing situation concerning the classification of… a) occlusive, in the production of which a complete obstruction is formed;
The system of Cardinal Vowels is an international standard. In spite of the… Russian phoneticians suggest a classification of vowels according to the following principles: 1) stability of…
Phoneme as a unit of language
Definition of the phoneme and its functions
Types of allophones and main features of the phoneme
Methods of the phonemic analysis
Main phonological schools
The phoneme is a minimal abstract linguistic unit realized in speech in the form of speech sounds opposable to other phonemes of the same language… Let us consider the phoneme from the point of view of its aspects.
Firstly, the phoneme is a functional unit. In phonetics function is usually understood as a role of the various units…
Allophones that occur under influence of the neighboring sounds in different phonetic situations are called subsidiary, e.g.:
a. deal, did - it is slightly palatalized before front vowels
b. bad pain, bedtime - it is pronounced without any plosion
As it was mentioned above, phonology has its own methods of investigation. Semantic method is applied for phonological analysis of both unknown… pen [pen]
M (1) If [кос] and [вАлы] are grammatical forms of the words коза and вол respectively, then the consonant [c] represents phoneme /з/, while the… СП (2) The consonant [c] in [кос] belongs to the phoneme Id no matter whether… П (3) The consonant [c] represents neither phoneme /з/, nor phoneme Id, while the vowel [А] in [вАлы] does not belong…
The system of the English phonemes
The system of consonant phonemes. Problem of affricates
The system of vowel phonemes. Problems of diphthongs and vowel length
1. Degree of noise
bake - make, veal - wheel
2. Place of articulation
Principles of classification provide the basis for the establishment of the following distinctive oppositions:
1. Stability of articulation
1.1. monophthongs vs. diphthongs
Alternations and modifications of speech sounds in English
The notion of alternation and its types
Contextual alternations in English
Modifications of sounds in English
1. Vowel alternations.
1.1 Distinction of irregular verbal forms [i:-e-e] mean - meant - meant;… 1.2 Distinction of causal verbal forms: [i-e] sit - set; [ai-ei] rise - raise; [o - e] fall-fell
We are interested in the sound in its weak position. Scholars of different trends are not unanimous in solving the problem.
The so-called morphological (Moscow phonological) school supports the theory… The Moscow philologists claim that interchange of sounds manifests close connection between phonetics and morphology.…
Every speech-sound pronounced in isolation has three stages of articulation. They are (1) the on-glide, or the initial stage, (2) the… The on-glide, or the beginning of a sound, is the stage during which the… In English there are two principal ways of linking two adjacent speech sounds: I. Merging of stages. II.…
The syllabic structure in English
Theories on syllable formal ion and division.
The structure and functions of syllables in English
The syllable is a complicated phenomenon and like a phoneme it can be studied on four levels - articulatory, acoustic, auditory and functional. The… We could start with the so-called expiratory (chest pulse or pressure) theory… Another theory of syllable put forward by O. Jespersen is generally called the sonority theory. According to O.…
Word stress in English
Nature of word stress
Place of word stress in English. Degrees of stress
Functions and tendencies of the English stress
Typology of accentual structures
Stress is defined differently by different authors. B.A. Bogoroditsky, for instance, defined stress as an increase of energy, accompanied by an… If we compare stressed and unstressed syllables in the words contract… (a) the force is greater, which is connected with more energetic articulation;
The word stress in English as well as in Russian is not only free but it may also be shifting, performing the semantic function of differentiating… There are actually as many degrees of stress in a word as there are syllables.… British linguists do not always deny the existence of tertiary stress as a tendency to use a tertiary stress on a…
The accentual types are:
1. ['___]. This accentual type marks both simple and compound words. The… 2. [ '_ '_ ]. The accentual type is commonly realized in compound words, most of them are with separable prefixes,…
Intonation in English
1. Intonation: definition, approaches, functions
Components of intonation and the structure of English tone-group
Intonation is a language universal. There are no languages which are spoken without any change of prosodic parameters but intonation functions in… There are two main approaches to the problem of intonation in Great Britain.… The first is represented by a large group of phoneticians: H. Sweet, D. Jones, G. Palmer, L. Armstrong, I. Ward, R.…