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The notion of alternation and its types

The notion of alternation and its types - Лекция, раздел Лингвистика, Лекции по теоретической фонетике. The structure and functions of syllable in English The Sound Variations In Words, Their Derivatives And Grammatical Form Words, ...

The sound variations in words, their derivatives and grammatical form words, are known as sound alternations. For example: the dark [l] in spell alternate with the clear [l] in spelling; combine (n) [‘kσmbain], combine [kəm’bain] where [n] in the stressed syllable of the noun alternates with the neutral sound. It is perfectly obvious that sound alternations of this type are caused by assimilation, accommodation and reduction in speech. To approach the matter from the phonological viewpoint, it is important to differentiate phonemic and allophone alternations. Some sound alternations are traced to the phonemic changes in earlier periods of the language development and are known as historical. Historical alternations mark both vowels and consonants, though the alternating sounds are not affected by the phonemic position or context. The sounds changes, which occurred in the process of historical development of the language, are reflected in present-day English as alternations of phonemes differentiating words, their derivatives and grammatical forms. The following list of examples presents the types of alternations:

1. Vowel alternations.

1.1 Distinction of irregular verbal forms [i:-e-e] mean - meant - meant; [i-æ-A] sing - sang - sung; [i-ei-i] give - gave - given;

1.2 Distinction of causal verbal forms: [i-e] sit - set; [ai-ei] rise - raise; [o - e] fall-fell

1.3 Distinction of parts of speech in etymologically correlated words [a: - æ] class - classify, [o: - e] long - length; [ei - æ] nation - national

2. Consonants alternations

2.1 Distinction of irregular verbal forms [d - t] send - sent

2.2 distinction of parts of speech [s - z] advice - advise; [k - t∫] speak - speech;

3. Vowel and consonant alternations [i - ai] + [v - f] live - life; [a: - ae] + [θ - ð] bath - bathe.

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Лекции по теоретической фонетике. The structure and functions of syllable in English

Лекции по теоретической фонетике Примерные вопросы для контроля знаний.. Phonetics as a branch of linguistics Phonetics and other disciplines.. Branches of phonetics..

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Phonetics as a branch of linguistics
We begin our study of language by examining the inventory, structure and functions of the speech sounds. This branch of linguistics is called phonetics. Phonetics is an independent branch

Aspects and units of phonetics
Human speech is the result of a highly complicated series of events. Let us consider the speech chain, which may be diagrammed in simplified form like this: Speak

Branches of phonetics
We know that the phonic medium can be studied from four points of view: the articulatory, the acoustic, the auditory, and the functional. We may consider the branches of phonetics accordin

Methods of phonetic analysis
We distinguish between subjective, introspective methods of phonetic investigation and objective methods. The oldest, simplest and most readily available method is the method of direct obs

Spoken and Written language
We don't need to speak in order to use language. Language can be written, broadcast from tapes and CDs, and produced by computers in limited ways. Nevertheless, speech remains the primary w

Articulatory classification of English consonants
There are two major classes of sounds traditionally distinguished in any language - consonants and vowels. The opposition "vowels vs. consonants" is a linguistic universal. The distinctio

The articulatory classification of English Vowels
The first linguist who tried to describe and classify vowels for all languages was D. Jones. He devised the system of 8 Cardinal Vowels. The basis of the system is physiological. Cardinal vowel No.

Definition of the phoneme and its functions.
To know how sounds are produced is not enough to describe and classify them as language units. When we talk about the sounds of language, the term "sound" can be interpreted in two differ

Types of allophones and the main features of the phoneme
Let us consider the English phoneme [d]. It is occlusive, forelingual, apical, alveolar, lenis consonant. This is how it sounds in isolation or in such words as door, darn, down, etc, when it retai

Methods of the phonemic analysis
The aim of the phonological analysis is, firstly, to determine which differences of sounds are phonemic and which are non-phonemic and, secondly, to find the inventory of phonemes of the language.

Main phonological schools
Let us consider the phrase [на лугу кос нет] and words [вАлы ], [сАма]. Logically, there can only be three answers to the question: which phonemes are represented by the consonant sound [c] in [кос

The system of consonant phonemes. Problem of affricates
The phonological analysis of English consonant sounds helps to distinguish 24 phonemes: [p, b, t, d, k, g, f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ∫, ж(не нашла ничего лучше J), h, t∫, dж, m, n, 

The system of vowel phonemes. Problems of diphthongs and vowel length
The following 20 vowel phonemes are distinguished in BBC English (RP): [i:, a:, o:, u:, з:, i, e, æ, σ, υ, л(типа крышка домика), ə; ei, ai, oi, аυ, eυ, υə,

Contextual alternations in English
Alternations are also widely spread on the synchronic level in the present-day English and are known as contextual. In connection with contextual sound alternations there arises a problem of phonem

Modifications of sounds in English
Sounds in actual speech are seldom pronounced by themselves. To pronounce a word consisting of more than one sound, it is necessary to join the sounds together in the proper way. There exist

Theories on syllable formation and division
Speech can be broken into minimal pronounceable units into which sounds show a tendency to cluster or group. These smallest phonetic groups arc generally given the name of syllables. Being the smal

Nature of word stress
The sequence of syllables in the word is not pronounced identically. The syllable or syllables which are uttered with more prominence than the other syllables of the word are said to be stressed or

Place of word stress in English. Degrees of stress
Languages are also differentiated according to the place of word stress. The traditional classification of languages concerning place of stress in a word is into those with a fixed stress and those

Typology of accentual structures
The numerous variations of English word stress are systematized in the typology of accentual structure of English words worked out by G.P. Torsuyev. He classifies them according to the number of st

The phonological aspect of intonation
1. Intonation: approaches, definitions, functions Intonation is a language universal. There are no languages which are spoken without any change of prosodic parameters but

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