рефераты конспекты курсовые дипломные лекции шпоры

Реферат Курсовая Конспект

Read and translate

Read and translate - раздел Образование, Времена группы indefinite active London's Underground Bands Were Playing And The Gen...


Bands were playing and the gentlemen in hats were preparing to make speeches about their great achievement. They made the first underground railway travel in the world — a distance of almost four miles.

It was the year 1863 and on that first historic day 30,000 Londoners used this new and strange way of travel. Now more than a hundred years later the London Underground carries more than a million passengers every day. The total 56 number of passengers carried by the London Underground each year is enormous, and it is constantly growing.

In the early days the trains were driven by steam locomotives which burnt coal.

It is said that the train staff and porters asked permission to grow beards and moustaches — as an early form of smog mask.

Now the atmosphere "underground" is considered even better than that outside as germs cannot grow in the dry air — and the trains, of course, are electric.

The deep tunneling came later, in 1890. Tunneling a tube through miles of clay, and sometimes sand and gravel is no easy task, and it was James Henry Greathead who developed the method which was to make most of London's tube tunnels possible.

London transport's experience with tunnels brought them another record. One of the longest continuous railway tunnel in the world is the 17 1/2 mile tunnel on the Northern line.

There are numerous escalators which help to keep the traffic moving. The first was installed in 1911. One of them at Leicester Square is over 80 feet in length. On long escalators the speed is changeable. The "up" escalator runs at full speed when carrying passengers, but when empty it runs at half speed. Many of the new escalators have automatic control making a more frequent service throughout the day possible.

Safety was always one of the main concerns of London transport. In spite of the fact that trains often follow each other within seconds, it is said that the London Underground is the safest form of transport in the world. Automatic signalling is operated by the trains themselves. A programme machine controls routes: if changes are necessary, they are made automatically and with lighting speed. No accidents can happen through human weakness.

New automatic driving systems are now being used. The air in the Underground is changed every quarter of an hour, and the temperature all year round is maintained at 69-79 degrees Fahrenheit.

Though the quality of service is high there is still significant overcrowding on certain lines at peak periods. This problem is being discussed and additional improvement of service is planned for the future.

A number of station modernization schemes are being completed. The aim is to provide a more attractive environment for the passengers. The usage of modern materials makes maintenance easier. This modernization is coordinated with the renewal of lifts and escalators and the introduction of new ticketing machines. The fare in the Underground depends on the distance, but the lowest is 50 pence.

The Underground is becoming much cleaner and brighter and therefore more pleasant to use, carrying more passengers than at any time in its long history.

Crime levels in London are generally reflected by crime levels on London's transport. According to the statistics the crime level in the Underground is rather high. To ensure safety of passengers and the staff the transport authorities added more police officers to the Underground System to guarantee as much protection as possible.


1.Agree or disagree using That's right ..., or That's wrong ... .

Example: a) If changes are necessary, they are made automatically with lighting speed. That's right, according to the text if changes are necessary they are made automatically with lighting speed, b) Safety signalling will be controlled by the drivers themselves. That's wrong, according to the text safety signalling will be controlled by coded electrical impulses.


1. It was fifty years ago that Londoners used a new way of travel. 2. The first underground travel in the world took place in 1863 in London. 3. The London Underground is not a very safe form of transport. 4. People who made the first underground travel did not consider it a great achievement. 5. In the early days the trains were driven by electricity. 6. The first escalator was installed 30 years ago. 7. The first trains were driven by steam locomotives. 8. The first escalator was installed in 1911. 9. The temperature in the Underground is very changeable. 10. The deep-level tubes came in 1890. 11. On long escalators the speed is not changeable. 12. The trains follow each other within seconds. 13. The temperature is maintained at 40 degrees by Fahrenheit.


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Времена группы indefinite active

Времена группы indefinite active.. Глаголы в формах Indefinite относят действие к настоящему прошедшему или будущему времени не уточняя как оно протекает по времени Времена..

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Past Indefinite
Стандартные глаголы образуют формы в Past Indefinit путем прибавления к инфинитиву ( без частицы to ) суффикса –ed (d) для всех лиц единственного и множественного числа. Например: To ask –

Write sentences from these words. Put the verb in the right form
(arrive or arrives etc.). 1 (always / early / Sue / arrive) Sue always arrives early. 2 (basketball / I / play / often) I..............................................

Put the verb in the correct form - positive, negative or question.
  1 We went to the cinema but the film wasn't very good. We didn't enjoy it. (enjoy) 2 Tim.......................................some new clothes yesterday - two shirt

Learn the vocabulary.
  Invention – изобретение Vacuum tube – вакуумная трубка, электронная лампа Device – прибор, устройство Record player – проигрыватель Power – мощно

Electronics in the home
Electronics began at the start of the twentieth century with the invention of the vacuum tube. The first devices for everyday use were radios, followed by televisions, record players, and tape reco

Translate the definitions.
Anodeis an electrode for the collection of electrons. Cathode (in electron tubes) is the electrode from which emission takes place. Diode

1. while operating; 2. while charging; 3. while forming; 4. while producing; 5. while creating; 6. while insulating; 7. while adding; 8. while increasing; 9. while decreasing Learn the

Lesson 2
ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ CONTINUOUS ACTIVE and PASSIVE Глаголы в формах Continuous употребляются, когда требуется подчеркнуть, что действие продолжается, продолжалось или бу­дет продолжаться в то вр

Write questions from these words. Use is or are and put the words in order.
  1 (working / Paul / today?) Is Paul working today? 2 (what / doing / the children?) What are the children doing? 3 (you / listening / to me?)........

Put the verb into the past continuous or past simple.
  1 A: What were you doing (you/do) when the phone rang (ring)? B: I was watching (watch) television. 2 A: Was Jane busy when you went to see he

Words to Be Learnt
available a — имеющийся considerable a — значительный copper n — медь desirable a — нужный difficult a — трудный either... or …—либо..., либо e

Read and translate
  BETTER METALS ARE VITAL TO TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS   Since the earliest days the preparation of metals for mechanical use was vital to the advance of civilizat

Pyroelectric infra-red sensors consist of a ceramic element, an alumina substrate and a circuit with field effect transistor (FET) and strong resistance, a window material. To attain excel

One, стоящее перед личной формой глагола, является формальным подлежащим и указывает на то, что данное предложение является неопределенно-личным. В этом случае на русский язык one не переводится, а

Усилительное (для выделения отдельных членов предложения).
It is Popov who indented the radio. - Радио изобрел не кто иной, как Попов.   Exercises: 1. Put in it is (it's) or is it.

Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes.
      It’s easy dangerous nice impossible interesting difficult     to work in t

Classifying Materials
  There are many ways of classifying materials. The one we shall use here is based on the ability of a material to conduct electricity. It is known that conduction takes place as a re

The Simplest Atom
  The simplest atom is that of the element hydrogen and it consists merely of a single proton in a nucleus and a single electron in orbit around it. The helium atom is the next simple

  Глаголы в формах Perfect указывают, что действие закончено или закончится к определенному моменту времени в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем. Глаголы в формах Perfect обычн

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense
shall + have been + Participle I will Future Perfect Continuous выражает длительное будущее действие, которое начнется ранее другого будущего действия или мо­мента и будет еще сов

Read the situations and complete the sentences.
1 The rain started two hours ago. It's still raining now. It ...has been raining... for two hours. 2 We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. We're still waiting now. We....

Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets.
1 I was very tired when I arrived home. (I / work / hard all day) I had been working hard all day. 2 The two boys came into the house. They had a football and they were both very

Put the verb into the correct form, will be (do)ing or will have (done).
1 Don't phone me between 7 and 8. ...We'll be haying... (we/have) dinner then. 2 Phone me after 8 o'clock........................................(we/finish) dinner by then. 3 Tomo

Complete the sentences with a verb from the list.
break buy decide forget go go invite see not/see take tell   1 Can I have this newspaper?' 'Yes, I've finished. with it.' 2 I........................................

Write questions with yet.
  1 Your friend has got a new job. Perhaps she has started it. You ask her: Have you started your new job yet? 3 Your friend must write a letter

Put in gone or been.
1 Bill is on holiday at the moment. He's …gone..to Spain. 2 Where's Jill?' 'She's not here. I think she's.................................to the bank.' 3 Hello, Sue. Where have yo

  Marie Curie was born in Warsaw on 7 November, 1867. Her father was a teacher of science and mathematics in a school in the town, and from him little Maria Sklodowska — which was her

  Глаголы can, may, must являются модальными глагола­ми; они не обозначают действия, а выражают отношение к нему, т. е. возможность, вероятность или необходимость совершения действия.

Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты
Для образования отрицательной формы после модального глаго­ла ставится отрицательная частица not. Примечание: Отрицание not с глаголом сап пишется слитно: cannot. Для образования

Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite

All the substances which occur in nature consist of one or more basic elements; a substance containing more than one element is known as a compound. An element is a substance that can neither be de

1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные способы выражения долженствования: 1. In scientific work we must measure in units of the metri

1. Who can translate this sentence? 2. You can go to Leningrad by train or by airplane. 3. Could you speak English a year ago? 4. I hope they will be able to reach the vil­lage before it is dark. 5

Fill in the gaps
1. Nina is ill. She ... stay in bed. 2. Drivers ... stop when they see the red light. 3. Betty asked: "... I open the window?" 4. Betty asked her father: "... I go to the concert ton

Страдательный залог
to be + Participle II   Страдательный залог показывает, что подлежащее пассивно, т. е. оно подвергается воздействию со стороны другого лица или предмета. Страдательн

Особенности перевода подлежащего.
Подлежащее английского предложения при сказуемом в страдательном залоге может переводиться на русский язык существительным (или местоимением) в именительном падеже и во всех косвенных падежах:

Correct these sentences.
1. {This house built} 100 years ago. …This house was built… 2. Football plays in most countries of the world. ………………………… 3. Why did the letter send to the wrong address? ………………………

Future-in-the-Past (Будущее в прошедшем)
В русском языке мы употребляем будущее время глагола, не задумываясь о том, в каком времени ведется повествование в целом, употребляется ли будущее время в главном или придаточном предложении, и да

Revision Exercises
  I. Оборот there + to be 1.There were several empty seats in the bus when I got into it. 2. There is a great number of goods that can be transported by air.

Существительные, имеющие разные значения в форме ед. и мн. числа
custom – обычай damage – повреждение pain – боль people – люди quarter – четверть work – работа customs – таможня damages – убытки pains – стара

Артикль (The Article)
Сравнительная таблица употребления артиклей с существительными в единственном числе A, an (неопределенный) The (определенный)

Имя прилагательное (The Adjective)
Прилагательные Положительная степень Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень Односложные и некоторые дву-

Местоимение (The Pronoun)
Ли-цо Личные Притяжательные Возвратнно-усилитель-ные Имени-тельный падеж Объект-ный падеж

Глагол (The Verb)
Спряжение глагола to ask (действительный залог) Время Indefinite (факты, повторяющиеся действия) Continuous (действия, происходящие в то

Предлоги, обозначающие время
  In - в, через in May, in 1980, in summer in two hours, in three days Запомните: in the morning — утром in the afternoon — днем in the eve

Суффиксы Словообразование 1. существительных -ance (-ence) -er (-or) -ing -t(ion) -ism -ist -(i) ty -ness -ment

Приставки Словообразование un- in- (im-, il-, ir-) re- dis- mis- necessary — unnecessary correct — incorrect (pol

Названия некоторых стран, национальностей и языков
Страна Национальность Язык Belgium Бельгия the Belgians бельгийцы French фра

List of abbreviations
  А.С. = (a.c.) = alternating current = переменный ток a.f. = audio frequency = звуковая частота A.F.C. = automatic frequency control = автоматическая подстройка час

Supplementary Reading
CONTROL SYSTEM   Computers have revolutionized manufacturing. They have given manufacturing engineers control over events in the factory. With this information, processes can

  A TRIODE is an electron tube with three electrodes namely a cathode, control grid and anode. This was the first amplifying tube and was invented by Lee de Forest in 1905 when he pla

  The two semiconductor materials used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, such as diodes and transistors, are germanium and silicon. Both these materials fall into group IV

  Semiconductors are solids whose resistivity lies between those : of electrical conductors and insulators. Semiconductors are used in computers, in radio and TV receivers,

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