рефераты конспекты курсовые дипломные лекции шпоры

Реферат Курсовая Конспект

Supplementary Reading

Supplementary Reading - раздел Образование, Времена группы indefinite active Control System   Computers Have Revolutionized Manufac...



Computers have revolutionized manufacturing. They have given manufacturing engineers control over events in the factory. With this information, processes can be reorganized for maximum efficiency and production steps can be rearranged for maximum cost savings. You can know what is occurring on the floor now.

Because of computers tasks are done more quickly and accurately. It enables engineers to make changes or corrections that will utilize equipment and people optimally.

An important quality of computers is that they are flexible. Change the program and you have a "new computer".

Software. Computers cannot run without software; that is, without some instructions on what to do. Software controls the flow of information in a computer system. The software makes a computer la specific device — a calculator, a designer, a program­mer, a cost estimator, an expert.

Simulation software is another type of software which is now becoming quite popular. This type of software lets you see your proposed factory layout at work "on paper".

Simulation software helps in the design and development of automated work cells, manufacturing systems and factories such as FMS.

An FMS without software is not flexible, has little use in manufacturing and is not even a system.

The main problems that FMS software should solve are as follows:

Keep track1 of the materials being manufactured, determine the exact physical location in the system and perform the correct sequence of operations.

Prevent the different operations from interfering with2 each other.

Determine error conditions and minimize their impact on the system.

Keep management informed on parts, production, part programming, system status.

Determine the best production schedule to meet due data and maximize machine utilization.

Forecast system needs at due time — fixtures, tools, lubricants and coolants.

Direct in real-time the operations of people in charge of3 the above facilities. Compare actual and forecast performances.

Inform the plant management with the required data from FMS, for production planning and control, accounting and reporting.

Thus, the FMS control system manages the total combination of devices in the system that contributes to the automatic operation of the production process. This includes the machine-tool controllers, the material handling system, the system monitoring devices, the system communications, and finally the system computer. Computer software supplies all the control management and monitoring functions that enable the system to achieve high utilization.

The control system is easily visualized4 by considering all the elements of the system in a structured arrangement according to its function. This structure and how each function of the structure relates to the overall system performance will be discussed later.


Пояснения к тексту

1. keep track (of)...—следить за (ходом, развитием чего-л.)

2. interfere with...—мешать, служить препятствием

3. people in charge of smth...—ответственные за что-л.

4. visualize—мысленно представлять себе


. 1.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих русских слов и сочетаний слов;

происходить (иметь место); программное обеспечение; моделирование; решать проблему; выполнять правильную последовательность операций; график основного производственного процесса; в свое время (своевременно); требуемые данные; отчетность; способствовать автоматизации производственного процесса; автоматизированная транспортная система; функции управления и контроля


2. Дополните следующие предложения фактами из текста:

1. It is necessary to say that one of the important features of computers is that.... 2. The significance of simulation software is that.... 3. As is known FMS software should solve a lot of problems, for example.... 4. Summing it up, one must say that the FMS control system.... 5. The task of FMS computer software is to.... 6. It is necessary to say that we can understand the FMS control system easily if we consider....




1. Will the strips move at the same or at different speeds?

What will cities of the future look like? Town planners are thinking of new methods of construction and transportation.

What will city transport be like in 20 or 30 years? The moving pavement is one possibility. It consists of several strips moving along at different speeds. These escalators are moving in both directions along all streets. On reaching his destination the passenger steps over the slower strip and there to terra firma (неподвиж­ная земля).

For convenience these moving pavements may be supplied with chairs, benches, vending machines selling soft drinks, ice-cream, candy and so on.

2. What kind of transport will bе forced out?

The first lines of such moving pavements should appear in the streets which have the heaviest traffic and are the most dangerous for pedestrians. In the beginning they will replace the older forms of city traffic only in certain streets, but then they will appear in a single system serving the centre of the city. Buses, trolley-buses and motor-cars will be forced out as the trams are forced out of the centre of many cities now.

3. What kind of cars shall we have in future?

What will the car of the future be like? It probably won't be red} Our response to colours isn't always the same. If you want people to stop when they see a car in front of them, yellow is probably the best. When you go for a drive in the car of tomorrow you will certainly know more about the road in front of you. Your car radio will tell you about the next corner before you can see it. It will pick this up from a wire under the road. When you stop quickly, the light that tells the man behind you to be careful will spread across the car. At the same time a bag in front of you will fill up with air to stop you hitting your head on the window. What will the car of the future run on? Not petrol, which is duty and noisy. In future we'll probably have electric cars. As a rule the electric car can only make a short journey before going back to the garage. Or steam cars. That too would be quiet and clean. But in England there is a farmer who has invented a car that runs on manure and he drives to London in it every week.

4. What are the advantages of a tube system?

Trains of the Future. What about long-distance travel? Consider the "tube-train" suspended and propelled by compressed air. ft may carry passengers on trips at 350 miles an hour. This idea is materialised in a 12-foot long model of a strange new aluminium torpedo train. The full-size train will run through an 18 foot-diameter metal tube,, while big propellers pump the air from die front to the rear. A tube system has many advantages, a tube train makes little noise; die tube can be suspended, buried (эд. подземный) or even run through buildings; maintenance.


– Конец работы –

Эта тема принадлежит разделу:

Времена группы indefinite active

Времена группы indefinite active.. Глаголы в формах Indefinite относят действие к настоящему прошедшему или будущему времени не уточняя как оно протекает по времени Времена..

Если Вам нужно дополнительный материал на эту тему, или Вы не нашли то, что искали, рекомендуем воспользоваться поиском по нашей базе работ: Supplementary Reading

Что будем делать с полученным материалом:

Если этот материал оказался полезным ля Вас, Вы можете сохранить его на свою страничку в социальных сетях:

Все темы данного раздела:

Past Indefinite
Стандартные глаголы образуют формы в Past Indefinit путем прибавления к инфинитиву ( без частицы to ) суффикса –ed (d) для всех лиц единственного и множественного числа. Например: To ask –

Write sentences from these words. Put the verb in the right form
(arrive or arrives etc.). 1 (always / early / Sue / arrive) Sue always arrives early. 2 (basketball / I / play / often) I..............................................

Put the verb in the correct form - positive, negative or question.
  1 We went to the cinema but the film wasn't very good. We didn't enjoy it. (enjoy) 2 Tim.......................................some new clothes yesterday - two shirt

Learn the vocabulary.
  Invention – изобретение Vacuum tube – вакуумная трубка, электронная лампа Device – прибор, устройство Record player – проигрыватель Power – мощно

Electronics in the home
Electronics began at the start of the twentieth century with the invention of the vacuum tube. The first devices for everyday use were radios, followed by televisions, record players, and tape reco

Translate the definitions.
Anodeis an electrode for the collection of electrons. Cathode (in electron tubes) is the electrode from which emission takes place. Diode

1. while operating; 2. while charging; 3. while forming; 4. while producing; 5. while creating; 6. while insulating; 7. while adding; 8. while increasing; 9. while decreasing Learn the

Lesson 2
ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ CONTINUOUS ACTIVE and PASSIVE Глаголы в формах Continuous употребляются, когда требуется подчеркнуть, что действие продолжается, продолжалось или бу­дет продолжаться в то вр

Write questions from these words. Use is or are and put the words in order.
  1 (working / Paul / today?) Is Paul working today? 2 (what / doing / the children?) What are the children doing? 3 (you / listening / to me?)........

Put the verb into the past continuous or past simple.
  1 A: What were you doing (you/do) when the phone rang (ring)? B: I was watching (watch) television. 2 A: Was Jane busy when you went to see he

Words to Be Learnt
available a — имеющийся considerable a — значительный copper n — медь desirable a — нужный difficult a — трудный either... or …—либо..., либо e

Read and translate
  BETTER METALS ARE VITAL TO TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS   Since the earliest days the preparation of metals for mechanical use was vital to the advance of civilizat

Pyroelectric infra-red sensors consist of a ceramic element, an alumina substrate and a circuit with field effect transistor (FET) and strong resistance, a window material. To attain excel

One, стоящее перед личной формой глагола, является формальным подлежащим и указывает на то, что данное предложение является неопределенно-личным. В этом случае на русский язык one не переводится, а

Усилительное (для выделения отдельных членов предложения).
It is Popov who indented the radio. - Радио изобрел не кто иной, как Попов.   Exercises: 1. Put in it is (it's) or is it.

Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes.
      It’s easy dangerous nice impossible interesting difficult     to work in t

Classifying Materials
  There are many ways of classifying materials. The one we shall use here is based on the ability of a material to conduct electricity. It is known that conduction takes place as a re

The Simplest Atom
  The simplest atom is that of the element hydrogen and it consists merely of a single proton in a nucleus and a single electron in orbit around it. The helium atom is the next simple

  Глаголы в формах Perfect указывают, что действие закончено или закончится к определенному моменту времени в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем. Глаголы в формах Perfect обычн

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense
shall + have been + Participle I will Future Perfect Continuous выражает длительное будущее действие, которое начнется ранее другого будущего действия или мо­мента и будет еще сов

Read the situations and complete the sentences.
1 The rain started two hours ago. It's still raining now. It ...has been raining... for two hours. 2 We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. We're still waiting now. We....

Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets.
1 I was very tired when I arrived home. (I / work / hard all day) I had been working hard all day. 2 The two boys came into the house. They had a football and they were both very

Put the verb into the correct form, will be (do)ing or will have (done).
1 Don't phone me between 7 and 8. ...We'll be haying... (we/have) dinner then. 2 Phone me after 8 o'clock........................................(we/finish) dinner by then. 3 Tomo

Complete the sentences with a verb from the list.
break buy decide forget go go invite see not/see take tell   1 Can I have this newspaper?' 'Yes, I've finished. with it.' 2 I........................................

Write questions with yet.
  1 Your friend has got a new job. Perhaps she has started it. You ask her: Have you started your new job yet? 3 Your friend must write a letter

Put in gone or been.
1 Bill is on holiday at the moment. He's …gone..to Spain. 2 Where's Jill?' 'She's not here. I think she's.................................to the bank.' 3 Hello, Sue. Where have yo

  Marie Curie was born in Warsaw on 7 November, 1867. Her father was a teacher of science and mathematics in a school in the town, and from him little Maria Sklodowska — which was her

  Глаголы can, may, must являются модальными глагола­ми; они не обозначают действия, а выражают отношение к нему, т. е. возможность, вероятность или необходимость совершения действия.

Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты
Для образования отрицательной формы после модального глаго­ла ставится отрицательная частица not. Примечание: Отрицание not с глаголом сап пишется слитно: cannot. Для образования

Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite

All the substances which occur in nature consist of one or more basic elements; a substance containing more than one element is known as a compound. An element is a substance that can neither be de

1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные способы выражения долженствования: 1. In scientific work we must measure in units of the metri

1. Who can translate this sentence? 2. You can go to Leningrad by train or by airplane. 3. Could you speak English a year ago? 4. I hope they will be able to reach the vil­lage before it is dark. 5

Fill in the gaps
1. Nina is ill. She ... stay in bed. 2. Drivers ... stop when they see the red light. 3. Betty asked: "... I open the window?" 4. Betty asked her father: "... I go to the concert ton

Страдательный залог
to be + Participle II   Страдательный залог показывает, что подлежащее пассивно, т. е. оно подвергается воздействию со стороны другого лица или предмета. Страдательн

Особенности перевода подлежащего.
Подлежащее английского предложения при сказуемом в страдательном залоге может переводиться на русский язык существительным (или местоимением) в именительном падеже и во всех косвенных падежах:

Correct these sentences.
1. {This house built} 100 years ago. …This house was built… 2. Football plays in most countries of the world. ………………………… 3. Why did the letter send to the wrong address? ………………………

Read and translate
LONDON'S UNDERGROUND Bands were playing and the gentlemen in hats were preparing to make speeches about their great achievement. They made the first underground railway tr

Future-in-the-Past (Будущее в прошедшем)
В русском языке мы употребляем будущее время глагола, не задумываясь о том, в каком времени ведется повествование в целом, употребляется ли будущее время в главном или придаточном предложении, и да

Revision Exercises
  I. Оборот there + to be 1.There were several empty seats in the bus when I got into it. 2. There is a great number of goods that can be transported by air.

Существительные, имеющие разные значения в форме ед. и мн. числа
custom – обычай damage – повреждение pain – боль people – люди quarter – четверть work – работа customs – таможня damages – убытки pains – стара

Артикль (The Article)
Сравнительная таблица употребления артиклей с существительными в единственном числе A, an (неопределенный) The (определенный)

Имя прилагательное (The Adjective)
Прилагательные Положительная степень Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень Односложные и некоторые дву-

Местоимение (The Pronoun)
Ли-цо Личные Притяжательные Возвратнно-усилитель-ные Имени-тельный падеж Объект-ный падеж

Глагол (The Verb)
Спряжение глагола to ask (действительный залог) Время Indefinite (факты, повторяющиеся действия) Continuous (действия, происходящие в то

Предлоги, обозначающие время
  In - в, через in May, in 1980, in summer in two hours, in three days Запомните: in the morning — утром in the afternoon — днем in the eve

Суффиксы Словообразование 1. существительных -ance (-ence) -er (-or) -ing -t(ion) -ism -ist -(i) ty -ness -ment

Приставки Словообразование un- in- (im-, il-, ir-) re- dis- mis- necessary — unnecessary correct — incorrect (pol

Названия некоторых стран, национальностей и языков
Страна Национальность Язык Belgium Бельгия the Belgians бельгийцы French фра

List of abbreviations
  А.С. = (a.c.) = alternating current = переменный ток a.f. = audio frequency = звуковая частота A.F.C. = automatic frequency control = автоматическая подстройка час

  A TRIODE is an electron tube with three electrodes namely a cathode, control grid and anode. This was the first amplifying tube and was invented by Lee de Forest in 1905 when he pla

  The two semiconductor materials used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, such as diodes and transistors, are germanium and silicon. Both these materials fall into group IV

  Semiconductors are solids whose resistivity lies between those : of electrical conductors and insulators. Semiconductors are used in computers, in radio and TV receivers,

Хотите получать на электронную почту самые свежие новости?
Education Insider Sample
Подпишитесь на Нашу рассылку
Наша политика приватности обеспечивает 100% безопасность и анонимность Ваших E-Mail
Соответствующий теме материал
  • Похожее
  • Популярное
  • Облако тегов
  • Здесь
  • Временно
  • Пусто