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Раздел I. Сегментная фонетика

Раздел I. Сегментная фонетика - раздел Лингвистика, Министерство Образования Республики Беларусь...


Лингвогуманитарный колледж Учреждения образования

«Минский государственный лингвистический университет»

Раздел I. Сегментная фонетика.

Звуко-буквенные соответствия в английском языке.

Минск, 2007


1. Слог. Принципы слогоделения. 3

2. Основное и второстепенное значение букв. 8

3. Чтение ударных гласных в различных типах слогов. 10

4. Чтение ударных гласных в закрытом слоге. 20

5. Чтение двухэлементных сочетаний гласных. 24

6. Чтение безударных гласных. 36

7. Чтение согласных. 42

8. Правила чтения гласных с согласными. 48

9. Сочетания согласных. 51

Слог. Принципы слогоделения.


The types, structure and functions of syllables in English.

A syllable is a speech unit which consists of a sound or a group of sounds one of which is heard more prominent than the others. This sound is the… The syllable consists of a vowel alone or is surrounded by consonants.… 1) open (covered at the beginning)

Syllable division rules for simple words and parts of compound words

! The so-called thriphthongs in English are disyllabic combinations, because they contain two vowel phonemes: faı|ə. Ex. 1 (from Test your pronunciation Unit 7, disc) How many syllables?

One word in each set has a different number of syllables from the others. Decide which it is, then check with the recording.

Ex.2 (from Test your pronunciation Unit 7, disc) What stress pattern? One word in each set has a different stress pattern from the others. Which is it? Check with the recording.

Ex.3 Divide into syllables and determine where the syllable boundary lies.


Ex.4 Transcribe the following words, divide them into syllables and explain the rule.

Основное и второстепенное значение букв

The primary and the secondary meaning of letters.

1) denotes in the alphabet: a – [ei], e – [ɪ:]. E.g. bake, be; 2) doesn’t correspond to the alphabetical letter: a – [æ]. e.g. cat; … 3) approximates the alphabetical letter: f – [f], y – [ai].

Чтение ударных гласных в различных типах слогов


The primary sound meaning of vowels in different types of syllables.

1) it is separated from the following vowel letter or from the combinations –le, -re by only one consonant letter e.g. pilot, idle, fibre; 2) it is followed by a consonant + r +vowel e.g. library, April; 3) it is followed by a readable vowel letter e.g. diet, going.


Reading of a stressed vowel in its short meaning. Short vowels of the English language.

The short sound meaning of “e, i, o” almost coincides with the sound meanings of these letters in the Latin alphabet. 1) The letter “e” denotes the short sound [e] representing the first element… 2) The letter “i” with the following consonants denote a very short sound [i].

Ex. 4 Each word on the left rhymes with one word on the right. Match the words that rhyme and try to write a short poem using some of the rhyming words.

Brain, teeth, lost, foot, boast, suit, weight, slight, death, says, dull, phrase, war, full, chef, leaf, glued Deaf, great, beef, breathe, skull, Les, reign, days, tossed, post, height, wreath, food, shoot, put, law, wool

Ex. 5 Practice reading vowels in their short meanings:

Letter” A”

a) Read as quickly as possible:

A cat, a black cat, a black cat sat, a black cat sat on a mat, a black cat sat on a mat and ate. A black cat sat on a mat and ate a fat rat.

b) Read the sentence:

There was a red van traveling West, and several cars and vans behind it. The van driver suddenly turned and crashed into the taxi. The taxi driver wasn’t badly hurt, but he was very angry.

c) Proverbs and idioms:

Flat as a pancake.

A hungry man is an angry man.

d) Rhymes and tongue-twisters:

Pat’s black cat is in Pat’s black hat.

Pussy-cat, pussy-cat

Can you catch that bad fat rat?

If you catch that bad fat rat,

You will have some milk for that.


Letter “E”

a) Hens, red hens, best red hens, ten best red hens, Ted sells ten best red hens. Every day Ted sells ten best red hens.

b) Only ten per cent of Kensington Express readers take regular exercise. Ten per cent felt that they were healthy or very healthy.

c) All’s well that ends well.

Better late than never.

d) Lesser leather never weathered wetter weather better.

Fred fed Ted bread and Ted led Fred bread .

Can you retell ten texts in twelve seconds?


letter “O”

a) Bob’s dog got a hot pot of porridge and some chops.

b) I’ve got a job in a sports shop at the moment.

c) Honesty is the best policy.

A proper cup of coffee from a proper copper coffee pot.


Ex. 6 Practice reading vowels in their long meanings:

Letter “E”

a) A man of words and not of deeds

Is like a garden full of weeds.

b) He speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease.

c) Easy come easy go.


Letters “I, Y”

a) As fit as a fiddle.

Which witch wished which wicked wish?

b) Needles and pins, needles and pins,

When a man marries, his trouble begins.


Letter “U”

a) A duck, an ugly duck, an ugly duck was in a cup, an ugly duck was in a funny cup, an ugly duck was in a funny cup on Sunday. An ugly duck was in a funny cup on a sunny Sunday.

b) Lucky in cards unlucky in love.

c) Mummies munch much mush.

Double bubble gum bubbles double bubbles.


Letter “A”

a) This amasing lake in Wales is a famous place for great races.

b) I can explain. The Daily Mail came late.

c) Make hay while the sun shines.

A stitch in time saves nine.

d) Rain, rain, go away,

Come again another day.


Billy, Billy, come and play

While the sun shines bright today.



Letters “I, Y”

a) Mike likes spicy pies with fried pike.

b) Hi, Mike! I’m busy typing. I have ninety-nine pages to type by Friday.

c) Out of sight out of mind.

Variety is a spice of life.

d) Why do you cry, Willy?

Why do you cry?

Why, Willy, why, Willy?

Why, Willy, why?

Letter “O”

a) The road below goes from Rome to the south coast. We are very close to our home.

b) Chip-chop, chip-chop,

Chipper-chopper Joe,

One big blow.

Oh! My toe!


Ex. 7 Put the words given below into a suitable column according to the rules of reading:


twilight, crying, Friday, magic, transport, limit, fiddle, panic, student, trying, bypass, never, uncle, letter, river, alphabet, timid, numeral, being, stupid, apricot, atomic, cinema, majority, better, hunting, visit, novel, palace, luggage, sentence, alcoholic, beginner, British, cucumber, famine, forever, Labrador, laser, microphone, noble, novel, poet, printer, puritan, puzzle, regular, Roman, secret, stupidity, syllabic, typical.


Test I


1. Read the words and explain the reading of stressed vowels:

Language, hunting, Friday, plate, sentence, primary, stupid, teeth.


2. Transcribe the words:

Fibre, April, going, render, family, avid, cavity, facet, lady, fever, over, funeral.


3. Find the odd word:

a) little, silly, fiddle, middle, quite

b) tragic, pathetic, paste, falls

c) ruling, tulip, truthful, trustee, numeral


4. Train the reading of the sounds [æ],[I],[i:]:

a) Can you imagine an imaginary menagery manager, imagining managing an imaginary menagerie?

b) I slit the sheet, the sheet I slit, and on the slitted sheet I sit.


5. Read the poem, find the word with stressed vowels in their short meaning and write them down:


The Rainy Day.

by H. W. Longfellow


The day is cold, and dark, and dreary:

It rains, and the wind is never weary;

The vine still clings to the mouldering wall,

But at every gust the dead leaves fall,

And the day is dark and dreary.


6. Read the proverbs, explain the reading of the underlined words:


1) Ask no questions and you’ll be told no lies.

2) There’s no smoke without fire.

3) Nothing ventured, nothing have.

4) Will you still need me, will you still feed me when I’m sixty-four?


7. Divide the words into syllables:

|Apricot, |spindle, ׀tribu׀lation, ׀intro׀duction, con׀glomerate, ׀raga׀muffin.


8. Divide the words into two columns:

1) words with stressed vowels in their alphabetical meanings;

2) words with vowels in their short meanings.


Television, nice, fever, bypass, under, hunting, boxing, refuse, twilight, letter, bicycle.


Test II

1. Divide into groups and transcribe these words: Worry, student, apricot, oppose, novel, after, magic, limit, visit, excuse,…   primary alphabetical meaning primary short meaning secondary meaning …

Чтение ударных гласных в закрытом слоге

Reading Vowels in Closed Syllables

Ex.1 Name the stressed sound of every line: 1. share, rare, care, compare, prepare, hare. 2. here, mere, sphere, material, serial, period.

Ex.4 Practice reading

He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. If the cap fits, wear it. Here today, gone tomorrow.

Чтение двухэлементных сочетаний гласных


Principles of Reading Vowel Digraphs

2) The 2nd letter is read in its primary long meaning: neutral [u:], either [aı], etc.; 3) Two letters are read in their primary short meanings, forming a diphthong:… 4) One of the letters is read in its primary short or secondary meaning: aunt [ɑ:], theory [ıə],…

Ex. 2 Pick out the odd word.

1. Toilet – tortoise – boycott – buoy

2. joy –oily –voyage – connoisseur

3. annoy – choice – they –joy – poison.

4. pear — swear — near — bear

5. eight — freight — sleigh — sleight

6. cream — head — leave — fleet

7. jeopardy — leopard — Leo — Leonard

8. ooze—wood—kangaroo—booze

9. courage — soul — trouble — nourish

10. plaintiff — raider — plaintive — plaid

Ex.3 Read the poem. Explain the reading of vowel combinations.


A little health, a little wealth

A little house and freedom

With some few friends for certain ends,

But little cause to need them.



a) Put the following words in the correct column according to the pronunciation of “ea”. Careful! Three of the words have two different pronunciations (and different meanings).

scream bean bread gear tear breath dread lead spear break heal steak dead yearn spread read knead plead pear bead great team breathe fear bear thread instead wear head year mean pearl

B) Give 2 examples of your own to each variant of pronunciation of the given digraph.



[ıə] [ εə ]

[ ei ]

EA[ a:]

[ i:]

[ e ]


Ex.5 Read the following words. Identify the sound of each line.

[ ] 2. good, cook, took, look [ ] 3. should, would, could [ ] 4. blood, flood

Ex.6 Pick out the odd word.

1. monkey — donkey — whiskey — key

2. feudal — few — sew — queue

3. piece — mischief — field — ceiling

4. foot — good — food -- cook

5. round — house — ounce — trouble

6. could — would — mould -- should

7. seize — receive — deictic – ceiling


Ex.7 Give 2 examples to each variant of pronunciation of the given digraph.

  [əυ] [aυ] [u:]

Ex. 22 Practice reading the following words.

pale, dale, rake, navy, table, ladle, staple, cradle, apron, sabre, latch, rack, jacket, quack, yank, jag, carry, parrot, garret, sparrow, barrel,… The letter "o": nose, probe, Joe, quote, drove, wove, phone, noble, ogre, cobra, joke, ogle, yoke, jog, lodge, wrong, knock, knot,…

Vowel Letter Combinations

Ay, ai

says, quay, certainly, always, holiday, Sunday, certainty, Monday, portrayal, play, clay, aid, straight, against, fair, chair, rain, air, said, aisle, balalaika, curtain, claim, certain, pay, again, plait, plaid, plaintiff, plaintive, quay age, clay


eagle, stream, sea, deal, bread, meal, lean, feather, sweat, breath, breakfast, heaven, pleasure, break, great, steak, fear, idea, tear, theatre, clear, earthly, rear, earthworm, Earn, earn, ear-splitting, Earn Shaw, earring, earnest, eaglet, each, eager, Easter, leave


eel, needle, agree, addressee, employee, peer, beer, beetle, teenager, teem, teetotal, returnee

Ei, ey

veil, convey, receive, key, height, eye, either, seismograph, sleight, money, heifer, Reynolds, atheism, deity, heir, heirloom, leitmotif, beige, donkey, eight, Leicester, weight, leisure, ceiling, receive, seize, geyser, they, survey, bogey, monkey, whiskey, weird

Eu, ew, iew

feudal, few, masseuse, sew, Freudian, masseur, lieutenant, euphemism, feudalism, queue, pseudonym, neutral, Europe, leukocyte, rheumatism, leukemia, leucotomy, Lucite, Peugeot, Reuter, Reuben, reunion, reusable, Seurat, chew, Tewkesberry, mew, mewl, fewness, Newton, New-York




jeopardy, leopard, Geoffrey, Leonard, people, theory, peony, theology, theorem, reorganize, reopen, Seoul, Leo, Leonardo, Leopold, Leonora, deodar, deoxyribonucleic, deodorant, , Neo-Latin, neologism, neoplasm, neonatal.


piece, tie, fierce, tried, studied, dries, fries, friend, flies, sieve, handkerchief, science, pliers, society, acquiesce, Viennese, happiest, Vietnam, viewpoint, achieve, chief, species, series, mischief, auntie, Freddie, brier, fiery, diet, field, fiesta


food, good, blood, flood, door, moor, poor, brooch, zoology, cooperate, cook, book, wood, floor, ooze, boost, boot, foolish, too, woo, kangaroo, foot, boost, boor, boomerang, boondocks, soothe

Oi, oy

noise, boy, patois, turquoise, coin, oily, turmoil, boil, connoisseur, tortoise, loiter, loin, soiree, Boyd, boysenberry, boycott, toy


round, soul, touch, group, could, should, would, thought, through, bough, through, rough, cough, thorough, flour, tourist, four, journey, courage, courier, ounce, oust, house, thousand, account, sound, fountain, youth, soup, boulevard, goulash, you, nourish, trouble, poultry, mould, shoulder, bought, slough, house, wound




Test 1

1. Напишите транскрипцию данных слов:
Four, boot, cook, young, couple, good, proud, round, look,foolish, food, sour, moon, loose, pronoun.


2. Распределите по группам данные слова в соответствии с иx

Borough, brought, tough, bough, thorough, ought, drought, dough, though, bought, sough, slough.

3. Напишите перевод предложений и транскрипцию выделенного слова:

1. After that she divorced from her husband and left her work, she was in a slough.

2. On the ship seamen started to bouse.

3. The woundwas fatal and there was no hope for his rescue.

4. Прочитайте и затранскрибируйте скороговорку:

How many cookies could a good cook if a good cook could cook cookies?

A good cook could cook as much cookies as a good cook who could cook cookies.


Test 2

1. Напишите транскрипцию словосочетаний:

Nutritious food, young neighbour, our childhood, fourteen hours, joyous
cousin, wooden house.


2. Распределите по группам данные слова в соответствии с их

Ooze, poor, floor, enough, choose, soul, book, southern, ounce, blood,

should, account, poultry, douche, flood, too, could, coo, mould, youth, rough,

oust, trouble, mould, broach, bloom, tooth, tourist, coot.


3. Напишите перевод предложений и транскрипцию выделенного

1. His hobby was a bouse.He could not come home for several days.

2. The little girl very was very frightened, when she saw a sloughof a snake on a stone.

3. A man was injured, he had a wound.


4. Прочитайте и затранскрибируйте скороговорку:

How many cookies could a good cook cook if a good cook could cook cookies?

A good cook could cook as much cookies as a good cook who could cook cookies.


Чтение безударных гласных


Reading of Unstressed Vowels

1.The letters ‘e’, ‘i’, ‘y’ denote the sound [ı]: rocket, bandit, funny. 2.The letters ‘a’, ‘o’, ‘u’ denote the sound [ə]: Poland, bottom,… BUT -age [ı] (message), -ate [ə/ı] (delicate), -ible [ı/ə] (terrible).


the ending -esof plural forms of nouns and of the 3rd singular present indefinite of verbs forms the separate syllable [ız] after [s], [z], [∫], [t∫]: dishes, washes, boxes.

the ending -ed of regular forms of verbs forms the separate syllable [ıd] after [t], [d]: expected, intended.



Ex. 1 Read the riddles. Try to guess the right answer. Transcribe the underlined words, explain the rules.

2) There is a question to which you never answer “yes”. What question is it? 3) What is it that looks like a ball, But stands still and does not fall

Ex. 2 Learn the rhyme.

  Lazy-bones Grundy Must do sums for Monday.

Ex.8 Read the following words. Note that they have complete vowel reduction.

Interest, model, parcel, travel; Medicine, professional, revolutionary.  



Ex. 1 Distribute the words into four groups (one and the same word can be in different groups) according to the reading of unstressed vowels:


[ə] [I] [ə/I] primary alph. meaning


Radio, message, kingdom, hopeless, gratitude, cellar, belong, changeable, divide, downy, also, prepare, deliberate, attribute, deliver, courage, teacher, countable, probable, tempo.


Ex. 2 Find the words with unstressed vowels and explain their reading:

1. Look before you leap.

2. Hasty climbers have sudden falls.

3. If you run after two hares, you’ll catch neither.

4. It’s not cricket.

5. Study sickness, while you are well.

6. Health isn’t valued, till sickness come.


Ex. 3 Transcribe the words:

Samba, gymnastics, glider, contest, spectator, vicious, medical, polo, bicycle, judo, discuss, stamina, marathon, achievement, disqualification.





[ə] [I] [ə/I] primary alph. meaning
kingdom cellar changeable deliberate deliver teacher countable probable Radio message gratitude belong divide downy prepare deliberate attribute deliver courage hopeless deliberate Radio gratitude also attribute tempo



Чтение согласных

READING OF “c, g, j”   Ex. 1 Read the words according to the rules:

Ex. 5 Read the proverbs. Explain the rules of reading.

2. Appearances are deceitful. 3. The devil is not so black as it is painted. 4. The tongue is not steel, yet it cuts.

Reading of Endings -(e)s, -(e)d

  The ending-(e)d of regular forms of verbs is read   …   c) [ıd] after [t], [d].

A) with the ending -(e)s


B) with the ending -(e)d

  Ex. 8 Put the words into columns:

A) with the ending -(e)s

[s] [z] [iz]


Cats, touches, drops, pencils, coats, poses, gods, cured, ports, causes, fits, its, adds, tends, courses, boxes, mottos, toes, heroes, saves, boxes, spies, memories, tomatoes, drivers, potatoes, matches, plays, pockets, fingers, sources, marches, invalids, secrets.


B) with the ending -(e)d

  Forced, recorded, swamped, saved, treated, brushed, connected, viewed, waited,…  

Ex. 11 Read the proverbs. Explain the rules of reading.

2. What can’t be cured must be endured. 3. Exception proves the rule. 4. Nothing ventured, nothing gained.


spots squares prize since six sports
streets wise sells sits exact escapes
rice rise sense science lose lost
oasis desert smokes songs crisps box
place face snacks seas voice boxes
plays phase nose smiles focus concert


Ex.13 The pronunciation of the possessive “s” is the same as for plural endings. For example:Peter’s [z], John’s [z], Philips [s], Steph’s [s], Gearge’s [iz], Alice’s [iz].

Put the words in italics in the correct column, according to the pronunciation of the possessive “s”.

a month’s holiday Jane’s dog the horse’s mouth Joe’s ambition Uncle Toby’s Mr. Walsh’s car Beth’s doll the judge’s decision   Liz’s mother the Jones’s children the government’s duty the boys’ farther the world’s resources a wasp’s nest a week’s pay
[z] [s] [ɪz]

Ex.14 Read the text, underline the past verbs with –ed ending and explain the rule of reading.

Robin Tailor was born in Birmingham on the 27th of December 1958. His mother died the same day. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor adopted him. In 1960, the Taylor family immigrated to Perth in Western Australia. Last year, Robin was in Britain on holiday. He traveled to Birmingham and asked about his family. He discovered that he had a twin brother! Robin phoned a BBC radio programme and told his story. He asked for information about his brother. That afternoon he received a phone call from Perth in Scotland. The next day he went to Scotland and met his brother for the first time.

Правила чтения гласных с согласными.


Reading of combinations of vowels with consonants.

[əυ] cold, fold, hold, bold, gold, told, sold; [aı] wild, mild, child,; [aı] kind, mind, find, bind, blind, rind.

Listen to the recording and decide which names you hear.

a) Pete b) Peter c) Pet   1. I’ve just been talking to __________________.

Look at and listen to these pairs of words.

b. Peter and pizza. These start with the same three sounds: [pi:tə] and [pi:tsə]. Now read the following pairs of words. How many identical sounds do they start…  

Сочетания согласных


Reading of English consonant clusters

All the combinations of consonants, except “sh”, have the primary and the secondary sound meanings. The combinations of consonants are read in the…     cluster sound where examples ch [t∫] [k] …

Ex.7 Sort out the words into columns according to the reading of consonant clusters.

  Ex.8 Practice reading the following words observing the rules of reading of… a)Sheep, fish, Lewisham, mishap, ghost, rough, high, eight, daughter, Ghana, ghastly, ghee, gherkin, ghetto, ghillie,…

Spot the homophones 1

isle / bard / beer / bored / caught / night / pale / cawed / chord / sly / died / dyer / cored / dough / flawed / toed / pear / meal / floored /… Some of these words do not form pairs of homophones.

Spot the homophones 2

  - Lousy whether we’ve been having recently. (=Lousy weather…) - We haven’t been having much son, that’s for shore. I got court in the reign this mourning and got wet threw.





U The Alphabet B Q R








  [ i: ]   [ e ]   [ eī ]   [ u: ]   [ aī ]   [ əu ]   [ ɑa: ]




I. Find the odd word in the line:

1. Guide, gas, general, glass, globe

2. Crimson, music, lens, always, research

3. Initiative, negotiate, transition, completion, station.


II. Explain assimilation(s) in the following words:

Cupboard, nice shoes, twice, try, sweet, plane, pray


III. Mark stresses:








IV. Transcribe the following words:

Psychiatrist, appointment, therapy, tranquilizer, medicinal, malaria, typhoid, hang gliding, windsurf, athletics, steeplechase, draughts, rink, oar, tournament.




* Digraph [daıgræf] – a pair of letters that represent one sound

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